2470 matches were found.
 
1013/2006/EC regulation on shipment of waste
 1013/2006/EC regulation on shipment of waste

regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.

See: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:190:0001:0098:EN:PDF

1272/2008/EEC regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substance
 1272/2008/EEC regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substance

1272/2008 regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:353:0001:1355:EN:PDF

1907/2006/EC, REACH
 1907/2006/EC, REACH

REACH is the Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU). REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment.
In principle REACH applies to all chemicals: not only chemicals used in industrial processes but also in our day-to-day life, for example in cleaning products, paints as well as in articles such as clothes, furniture and electrical appliances.
The aims of REACH are to:

  • Improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals
  • Enhance the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry, a key sector for the economy of the EU
  • Promote alternative methods for the assessment of hazards of substances
  • Ensure the free circulation of substances on the internal market of the European Union.

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF

1999/45/EC directive on classification, packaging, labelling of dangerous prepar
 1999/45/EC directive on classification, packaging, labelling of dangerous prepar

directive 1999/45/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 31 May 1999, concerning the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations.

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:1999:200:0001:0068:EN:PDF

2,4,5-T
 2,4,5-T

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a synthetic auxin is herbicide used for killing broad-leafed plants. It was widely used in the agricultural industry until being banned from the 1970s due to its toxicity. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U.S. in the Vietnam War, was equal parts 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D.

2,4,5-T itself is only moderately toxic, with oral LD50 of 389 mg/kg in mice and 500 mg/kg in rats. Its toxicity is in association with the trace amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which contaminates the product during chemical synthesis. TCDD is reported to be extremely toxic to humans. With proper temperature control during production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about 0.005 ppm. Before the TCDD risk was well-understood, early production facilities lacked proper temperature controls and individual batches tested later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD.

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic_acid)

2,4-D
 2,4-D

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. It is the most widely used herbicide in the world. 2,4-D is also an important synthetic auxin, a plant hormone, used in laboratories for plant tissue culture media to control and regulate plant growth and development. Its CAS-number: 95-75-7.

2000/532/EC commission decision on waste list
 2000/532/EC commission decision on waste list

2000/532/EC, commission decision of 3 May 2000 on the list of wastes.
List of wastes pursuant to Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/EEC on waste and Article 1(4) of Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste.
The present list is a harmonised list of wastes. It will be periodically reviewed and if necessary revised in accordance
with Article 18 of Directive 75/442/EEC. However, the inclusion of a material in the list does not mean that the
material is a waste in all circumstances. Materials are considered to be waste only where the definition of waste in
Article 1(a) of Directive 75/442/EEC is met. Wastes included in the list are subject to the provisions of Directive 75/442/EEC except where Article 2(1)(b) of this Directive applies.
The different types of waste in the list are fully defined by the six-digit code for the waste and the respective two-digit and four-digit chapter headings. This implies that the following steps should be taken to identify a waste in the list.
As the first step, identify the source generating the waste in Chapters 01 to 12 or 17 to 20 and identify the appropriate six-digit code of the waste. If no appropriate waste code can be found in Chapters 01 to 12 or 17 to 20 the Chapters 13, 14 and 15 must be examined to identify the waste. If none of these waste codes apply, the waste must be identified according to Chapter 16. If the waste is not in Chapter 16 either, the 99 code (wastes not otherwise specified) must be used in the section of the list corresponding to the activity identified in step one.
Any waste marked with an asterisk (*) is considered as a hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1(4), first indent, of
Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, and subject to the provisions of that Directive unless Article 1(5) of that
Directive applies.
For the purpose of this Decision, ‘dangerous substance’ means any substance that has been or will be classified as
dangerous in Directive 67/548/EEC as amended; ‘heavy metal’ means any compound of antimony, arsenic, cadmium,
chromium (VI), copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium and tin, including these metals in metallic
form, as far as these are classified as dangerous substances. If a waste is identified as hazardous by a specific or general reference to dangerous substances, the waste is hazardous only if the concentrations of those substances are such (i.e. percentage by weight) that the waste presents one or more of the properties listed in Annex III to Council Directive 91/689/EEC.

Chapters of the list: two-digit codes:
01 Wastes resulting from exploration, mining, dressing and further treatment of minerals and quarry
02 Wastes from agricultural, horticultural, hunting, fishing and aquacultural primary production, food preparation and
processing
03 Wastes from wood processing and the production of paper, cardboard, pulp, panels and furniture
04 Wastes from the leather, fur and textile industries
05 Wastes from petroleum refining, natural gas purification and pyrolytic treatment of coal
06 Wastes from inorganic chemical processes
07 Wastes from organic chemical processes
08 Wastes from the manufacture, formulation, supply and use (MFSU) of coatings (paints, varnishes and vitreous
enamels), adhesives, sealants and printing inks
09 Wastes from the photographic industry
10 Inorganic wastes from thermal processes
11 Inorganic metal-containing wastes from metal treatment and the coating of metals, and non-ferrous hydrometallurgy
12 Wastes from shaping and surface treatment of metals and plastics
13 Oil wastes (except edible oils, 05 anbd 12)
14 Wastes from organic substances used as solvents (except 07 and 08)
15 Waste packaging; absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials and protective clothing not otherwise specified
16 Wastes not otherwise specified in the list
17 Construction and demolition wastes (including road construction)
18 Wastes from human or animal health care and/or related research (except kitchen and restaurant wastes not arising
from immediate health care)
19 Wastes from waste treatment facilities, off-site waste water treatment plants and the water industry
20 Municipal wastes and similar commercial, industrial and institutional wastes including separately collected fractions.

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:226:0003:0024:EN:PDF

2001/59/EC directive on classification, packaging and labelling
 2001/59/EC directive on classification, packaging and labelling

directive on classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. Commission Directive 2001/59/EC of 6 August 2001 adapting to technical progress for the 28th time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances: OJEC L225, 21.8.2001, pp. 1–333.

The danger symbols are defined in Annex II of the directive. A consolidated list with translations into other EU languages can be found in Directive 2001/59/EC.

The standard phrases are defined in Annexes III and IV of the Directive. Annex III defines phrases relating to the Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as R-phrases. Annex IV defines phrases relating to Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as S-phrases.

The appropriate standard phrases must appear on the packaging and label of the product and on its MSDS (Material Safety data Sheet). Annex I specifies the standard phrases to be used for substances that are listed there: these are obligatory.

The lists of standard phrases were last updated in 2001, and Directive 2001/59/EC provides a consolidated list in all EU languages. In general, the label on the packaging of a dangerous substance or preparation must clearly indicate the following items:

  • the name of the substance; for substances listed in Annex I, the name indicated must be one of those listed in the Annex (many substances appear in the Annex under different synonyms): otherwise, the name should be "internationally recognized"
  • the name, full address and telephone number of the person or company which has placed the substance on the market (manufacturer, importer or distributor);
  • the danger symbols, if any;
  • the standard phrases, if any; (certain exemptions are permitted)
  • the EINECS number or equivalent;
  • for substances listed in Annex I, the words EC label.

On 20 January 2009 the new (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures entered into force. It aligns existing EU legislation to the United Nations Globally Harmonised System (GHS).

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001L0059:EN:NOT and
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangerous_Substances_Directive_%2867/548/EEC%29#cite_note-2001-59-EC-6

2006/12/EC waste directive
 2006/12/EC waste directive

DIRECTIVE 2006/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006, on waste.
Some important issues:
The essential objective of all provisions relating to waste management should be the protection of human health and the environment against harmful effects caused by the collection, transport, treatment, storage and tipping of waste.
Common terminology and a definition of waste are needed in order to improve the efficiency of waste management in the Community.
Effective and consistent rules on waste disposal and recovery should be applied, subject to certain exceptions, to movable property which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard.
The recovery of waste and the use of recovered materials as raw materials should be encouraged in order to conserve natural resources. It may be necessary to adopt specific rules for re‑usable waste.
In order to achieve a high level of environmental protection, Member States should, in addition to taking responsible action to ensure the disposal and recovery of waste, take measures to restrict the production of waste particularly by promoting clean technologies and products which can be recycled and re‑used, taking into consideration existing or potential market opportunities for recovered waste.
Moreover, discrepancies between Member States’ legislation with regard to waste disposal and recovery may affect the quality of the environment and the smooth operation of the internal market. It is important for the Community as a whole to become self‑sufficient in waste disposal and desirable for Member States individually to aim at such self‑sufficiency. In order to achieve those objectives, waste management plans should be drawn up in the Member States.
Movements of waste should be reduced and Member States may take the necessary measures to that end in their management plans.
To ensure a high level of protection and effective control, it is necessary to provide for authorisation and inspection
of undertakings which carry out waste disposal and recovery.
In order that waste can be monitored from its production to its final disposal, other undertakings involved with waste, such as waste collectors, carriers and brokers should also be subject to authorisation or registration and appropriate inspection.
That proportion of the costs not covered by the proceeds of treating the waste must be defrayed in accordance
with the ‘polluter pays’ principle.

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:114:0009:0021:EN:PDF

2008/1/EC IPPC directive
 2008/1/EC IPPC directive
67/548/EEC dangerous substance directive
 67/548/EEC dangerous substance directive
67/548/EEC directive on classification, packaging and labelling
 67/548/EEC directive on classification, packaging and labelling

Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulation and administrative provision relatingto the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances.

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31967L0548:EN:HTML

8:2 FTOH
 8:2 FTOH

8:2 FTOH = 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol.

8:2 FTOH is mainly used for coating of textiles, paper and carpets to achieve oil, stain and water repellent properties, cleaning agents and is present as residual raw materials. The reaction of fluorotelomer alcohol to make fluorotelomer acrylates or methacrylate esters leaves 0.1-0.5 wt% unreacted residual FTOH. The FTOHs are present in the ultimate sales products unless removed. A Norwegian study by Berger and Thomsen (2006) showed that by extraction of a Norwegian “all weather coat” with ethylacetate and methanol there were measured nearly 1000 μg/m2 8:2 FTOH and about 20 μg/m2 PFOA.

It is classified as reprotoxic in the EU, under CLP.

See also the Europenan classification (CLH) dossier here:

http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/570253b4-9e95-4e29-a394-89ece2050905 .

While it is degraded in the atmosphere and in the soil PFOA is produced.

8:2 FTOH is mainly used for coating of textiles, paper and carpets
to achieve oil, stain and
water repellent properties, cleaning agents and is prese
nt as residual raw materials
(Dinglasan
-
Panlilio and Mabury, 2006)
. The reaction of fluorotelomer alcohol to make
fluorotelomer acrylates or methacrylate esters leaves
0.1
-
0.5 wt% unreacted residual FTOH.
The FTOHs are present in the ultimate sales products unless removed. A Norwegian study
by Berger and Thomsen
(Berger and Thomsen, 2006)
showed that by extraction of a
Norwegian “all weather coat” with ethylacetate and methanol there were measured nearly
1000 μg/m
2
8:2 FTOH and about 20 μg/m
2
PFOA

8:2 FTOH is mainly used for coating of textiles, paper and carpets to achieve oil, stain and water repellent properties, cleaning agents and is present as residual raw.

The reaction of fluorotelomer alcohol to make

fluorotelomer acrylates or methacrylate esters leaves 0.1-0.5 wt% unreacted residual FTOH.

The FTOHs are present in the ultimate sales products unless removed. A Norwegian study by Berger and Thomsen (2006)showed that by extraction of a Norwegian “all weather coat” with ethylacetate and methanol there were measured nearly 1000 μg/m2

8:2 FTOH and about 20 μg/m2 PFOA.

91/414/EEC directive on plant protection products
 91/414/EEC directive on plant protection products

Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are regulated by the Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market lays down rules and procedures for approval of the active substances at EU-level and for the authorisation at Member State level of plant protection products (PPPs) containing these substances. This Directive states that substances cannot be used in plant protection products unless they are included in a positive EU list. Once a substance is included in the positive list Member States may authorise the use of products containing them.

Pesticides residues in food are regulated by Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. The legislation covers the setting, monitoring and control of pesticides residues in products of plant and animal origin that may arise from their use in plant protection.

Both Directive 91/414 on the placing on the market of plant protection products and Regulation 396/2005 on pesticide residues in food and feed aim at a high level of protection of human health and the environment.

Source: http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/index_en.htm

98/8/EC, biocidal products, placing on market
 98/8/EC, biocidal products, placing on market

directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 february 1998, concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market.

Biocidal products are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, put up in the form in which they are supplied to the user, intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, prevent the action of, or otherwise exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

Harmful is an organism which has an unwanted presence or a detrimental effect for humans, their activities or the products they use or produce, or for animals or for the environment.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 1451/2007 of 4 December 2007 on the second phase of the 10-year work programme referred to in Article 16(2) of Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. Pursuant to Directive 98/8/EC, Member States may only authorise the placing on the market of biocidal products containing active substances included in Annex I, to that Directive.

Biocidal products containing active substances listed in Annex II to the Regulation 1451/2007 for which a decision was taken not to include these active substances for certain or all of their notified product types in Annex I (or IA) to Directive
98/8/EC, shall no longer be placed on the market.

Annex I and Annex II list can be find in: http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/legislation/2007R1451EC.pdf

Sourcec: http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/legislation/1998L0008EC.pdf, and
http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/legislation/2007R1451EC.pdf

Aarhus Convention
 Aarhus Convention

the European Union wishes to keep citizens informed about and involved in environmental matters and to improve the application of environmental legislation by approving the Convention on access to information, public participation and access to justice in environmental matters (Århus Convention).

Council Decision 2005/370/EC of 17 February 2005 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters.

This Decision approves the Århus Convention (signed by the European Community and its Member States in 1998) on behalf of the Community.

The Convention, in force since 30 October 2001, is based on the premise that greater public awareness of and involvement in environmental matters will improve environmental protection. It is designed to help protect the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being. To this end, the Convention provides for action in three areas:

  • ensuring public access to environmental information held by the public authorities;
  • fostering public participation in decision-making which affects the environment;
  • extending the conditions of access to justice in environmental matters.

The parties to the Convention undertake to apply the listed provisions, and must therefore:

  • take the necessary legislative, regulatory and other measures;
  • enable public officials and authorities to help and advise the public on access to information, participation in decision-making and access to justice;
  • promote environmental education and environmental awareness among the public;
  • provide for recognition of and support to associations, organisations or groups promoting environmental protection.

The Convention emphasizes public participation in decision-making. This must be ensured through the authorisation procedure for certain specific activities (mainly of an industrial nature) listed in Annex I to the Convention. The final decision to authorise the activity must take due account of the outcome of the public participation.

The Convention also invites the parties to promote public participation in the preparation of environmental policies as well as standards and legislation that may have a significant effect on the environment.

Regarding access to justice, all persons who feel their rights to access to information have been impaired (request for information ignored, wrongfully refused, inadequately answered) must have access, in the appropriate circumstances, to a review procedure under national legislation.

The Community has undertaken to take the necessary measures to ensure the effective application of the Convention.

Source: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/general_provisions/l28056_en.htm

AAS
abdominal
 abdominal

related to the abdomen, the part of the body between the chest and the hips. It includes the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and other organs.

abiotic
 abiotic

not biological, abiological, not associated with living organisms, nonliving. The abiotic part of the environment includes atmospheric gases, waters, rocks and minerals, nonliving part of soils and sediments, dead organic matter and humus in soil and sediment, dissolved inorganic and organic compounds in waters, atc. Light and temperature are also environmental factors classified as 'nonliving'.

abiotic degradation
 abiotic degradation

process in which a substance is converted to simpler products by physical or chemical mechanisms, such as hydrolysis, photolysis or radioactive decay.

abiotic transformation in the environment
 abiotic transformation in the environment

it is a process in which a substance in the environment is modified by non-biological mechanisms.

absolute or quantitative environmental risk
 absolute or quantitative environmental risk

a quantitaive value characterising risk. The risk of chemical substances is characterised by the Risk Quotient (RQ) the ratio of their Predicted Environmnetal Concentration (PEC) and their Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC).

The level of harm according to the risk value is the following:

RQ

Level or harm

<0,001

negligable

0,001-0,1

low

0,1-1

moderate

1-10

high

>10

very high

absorbable dose
 absorbable dose

the absorbable dose represents that present on or in the skin following washing.

absorbed dose
 absorbed dose

mass of test substance reaching the receptor fluid or systemic circulation within a specified period of time.

absorber
 absorber

in chemical engineering an absorber is an equipment in which a gas is absorbed by contact with a liquid.
In electronics, it is a material or device that takes up and dissipates radiated energy; may be used to shield an object from the energy, prevent reflection of the energy, determine the nature of the radiation, or selectively transmit one or more components of the radiation.
The surface on a solar collector that absorbs the solar radiation is also an absorber.
In nuclear technologies absorber is a material that absorbs neutrons or other ionizing radiation.

absorption
 absorption

absorption in general is

- a process of one material (absorbate) being retained by another (absorbent). Note: The process may be the physical solution of a gas, liquid, or solid in a liquid, attachment of molecules of a gas, vapor, liquid, or dissolved substance to a solid surface by physical forces, etc.

- transfer of some or all of the energy of radiation to matter which it traverses. Note: Absorption of light at bands of characteristic wavelengths is used as an analytical method in spectrophotometry to identify the chemical nature of molecules, atoms or ions and to measure the concentrations of these species.

Absorption of radiation (physical process) is a phenomenon in which radiation transfers some or all of its energy to matter which it traverses. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation, light, sound, solar energy and ionisation radiation is possible by materials or devices, which are named absorbers.

Absorption in chemistry (in chemical engineering) means the absorption of particles of gas or liquid in liquid or solid material. An other term is for a more general process is sorption, which do not distinguish between absorption and adsorption, but integrates the two.

The process of absorption can be described with the absorption coefficient, which gives the amount of gas or vapour beeing able to absorb in 1cm3 liquid or solid. Absorption coefficient is higher on low temperature and high pressure, than on high temperature and low pressure.

Absorption in biology is uptake, e.g. the penetration of a substance into an organism and its cells by various processes, some specialized, some involving expenditure of energy (active transport), some involving a carrier system, and others involving passive movement down an electrochemical gradient.

In mammals absorption is usually through the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or skin into the circulatory system and from the circulation into organs, tissues and cells.

Uptake to the blood and transport via the blood of a substance to an organ or compartment in the body distant from the site of absorption. It is called also systemic absorption.

Environmental technologies use absorption 1. for contaminated soil gas treatment, 2. for the absorption of the gaseous phase desorbed from contaminated soil surface during the application of a thermal desoption technology, 3. for the treatment of off-gases from incineration or pirolysis of contaminated solid waste or soil.

Biology and biotechnology uses the term absorption too: menas the process of taking in. For a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance getting into the body through the eyes, skin, stomach, intestines, or lungs. Absorption by skin is a route by which substances/toxic chemical substances can enter the body through the skin. Toxicologists and pharmacologists investigate absorption of drugs in body. Absorption of nutrients by the small intestine is part of the human digestion process.

abstraction limit value
 abstraction limit value
Acaricide
 Acaricide

the class of pesticides used to kill mites and ticks. Another name is miticide.

accelerated solvent extraction
 accelerated solvent extraction

in other name accelerated solvent extraction, abbreviated as ASE, a sample preparation technique in determination of POP (Persistent Orcanic Pollutants) that combines elevated temperature and pressure with solvents to achieve fast and efficient removal of components of interest from any solid sample (soil, sediment, food, textile, waste, biological sample, ash, etc.). The solubility of compounds is enhanced at elevated temperature, e.g. rising the temperature from 50 °C to 150 °C the solubility of anthracene is increased 13 fold resulting in enhanced diffusion as well. The high pressure makes it possible to work on temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent and helps to the solvent to enter into the pores of the sample. ASE has been demonstrated to be equivalent to existing extraction methodologies, such as Soxhlet extraction. (Source: MOKKA database, sheet No. 582)

Acceptable Daily Intake
 Acceptable Daily Intake

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is the estimated maximum amount of an agent, expressed on a body mass basis, to which an individual in a (sub) population may be exposed daily over its lifetime without

appreciable health risk.

Related terms: Reference Dose, Tolerable Daily Intake

acceptable risk
 acceptable risk

This is a risk management term. The acceptability of the risk depends on scientific data, social, economic, and political factors, and on the perceived benefits arising from exposure to an agent.

Source: Descriptions of Selected Key Generic Terms Used In Chemical Hazard/Risk Assessment. ENV/JM/MONO(2003)15.
http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocument/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO%282003%2915&docLanguage=En

accidental water pollution
 accidental water pollution
accuracy
 accuracy

accuracy is how close a numerical measure is to its actual value.

accuracy of measuring and testing
 accuracy of measuring and testing
ACEA, European Automobile Manufactirers Association
 ACEA, European Automobile Manufactirers Association

The European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA) represents the 15 Europe-based car, van, truck and bus makers: BMW Group, Daimler, DAF, Fiat, Ford of Europe, General Motors Europe, Hyundai Motor Europe, Iveco, Jaguar Land Rover, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault, Toyota Motor Europe, Volkswagen Group, Volvo Cars, Volvo Group.

The European automotive industry has experienced significant changes in the pattern of demand for its vehicles. It has inherited its current cost structure and production capacity from a now past era of higher turnover and larger European sales. Both policy makers and industry must adapt to changing economic trends and shifting consumer demand.

To ensure sustainable growth and the ability to compete globally, the European industry must reinvent itself, changing its structure and business models.

  • Mitigate the social and economic impact of restructuring by revitalising the affected territories.
  • Mobilise existing funds and simplify procedures to facilitate change as needed.
  • Improve labour flexibility across Europe.
  • Support workers in their transition to new employment.
  • Address the 'skills mismatch' (ie workers or graduates with skills not matching those needed by employers).

Examples

  • Ease funding for training within the context of the adoption of ambitious competitiveness plans that allow for more flexibility in the management of the workforce.
  • Streamline, simplify and accelerate the implementation procedures for funds, in particular the European Globalisation Fund, European Regional Development Fund and European Social Fund, to enable maximum usage of these instruments.
  • Further improve the quality of education and increase access to educational opportunities, notably at the tertiary level, to ensure the availability of a highly-skilled and specialised workforce.
  • Launch special programmes to increase the number of students enrolled in fields of education where the auto industry faces or will face shortages such as engineering, informatics, computer sciences and natural sciences.

Source: http://www.acea.be/

acethycholinestrase and its inhibition
 acethycholinestrase and its inhibition

acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme present in nerve tissue, muscles and red blood cells that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)to choline and acetic acid, allowing neural transmission across synapses to occur.

The inhibition of acethylcholinesterase by an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor substance results in an increase in the level and life-time of acethylcholin in the neuromuscular junction resulting in prolonged muscle contraction.

The compound or group of compounds of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (e.g., organophosphorus compounds) block the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.

In luck of cholinestherase the repeated and unchecked firing of electrical signals can cause uncontrolled, rapid twitching of some muscles, paralyzed breathing, convulsions, and in extreme cases, death. Workers, farmers, gardeners using this kind of pesticides should use protective wear and tools not to be in contacts with the pesticide through skin or eye or swallowing.

Based on this activity acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used as pesticides. Any pesticide that can bind, or inhibit, cholinesterase, making it unable to breakdown acetylcholine, is called a "cholinesterase inhibitor," or "anticholinesterase agent." The two main classes of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are the organophosphates (OPs) and the carbamates (CMs). Some newer chemicals, such as the chlorinated derivatives of nicotine can also affect the cholinesterase enzyme.

Organophosphate insecticides include some of the most toxic pesticides. They can enter the human body through skin absorption, inhalation and ingestion. They can affect cholinesterase activity in both red blood cells and in blood plasma, and can act directly, or in combination with other enzymes, on cholinesterase in the body. The following list includes some of the most commonly used OPs:

  • acephate (Orthene)
  • Aspon
  • azinphos-methyl (Guthion)
  • carbofuran (Furadan, F formulation)
  • carbophenothion (Trithion)
  • chlorfenvinphos (Birlane)
  • chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Lorsban)
  • coumaphos (Co-Ral)
  • crotoxyphos (Ciodrin, Ciovap)
  • crufomate (Ruelene)
  • demeton (Systox)
  • diazinon (Spectracide)
  • dichlorvos (DDVP, Vapona)
  • dicrotophos (Bidrin)
  • dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
  • dioxathion (Delnav)
  • disulfoton (Di-Syston)
  • EPN
  • ethion
  • ethoprop (Mocap)
  • famphur
  • fenamiphos (Nemacur)
  • fenitrothion (Sumithion)fensulfothion (Dasanit)
  • fenthion (Baytex, Tiguvon)
  • fonofos (Dyfonate)
  • isofenfos (Oftanol, Amaze)
  • malathion (Cythion)
  • methamidophos (Monitor)
  • methidathion (Supracide)
  • methyl parathio
  • mevinphos (Phosdrin)
  • monocrotophos
  • naled (Dibrom)
  • oxydemeton-methyl(Meta systox-R)
  • parathion (Niran, Phoskil)
  • phorate (Thimet)
  • phosalone (Zolonc)
  • phosmet (Irnidan, Prolate)
  • phosphamidon (Dimecron)
  • temephos (Abate)
  • TEPP
  • terbufos (Counter)
  • tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon, Ravap)
  • trichlorfon (Dylox, Neguvon)

Carbamates, like organophosphates, vary widely in toxicity and work by inhibiting plasma cholinesterase. Some examples of carbamates are listed below:

  • aldicarb (Temik)
  • bendiocarb (Ficam)
  • bufencarb
  • carbaryl (Sevin)
  • carbofuran(Furadan)
  • formetanate (Carzol)
  • methiocarb (Mesurol)
  • methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
  • oxamyl (Vydate)
  • pinmicarb (Pirimor)
  • propoxur (Baygon)

Sources:

http://extoxnet.orst.edu/tibs/cholines.htm

http://www.fluoridealert.org/westendorf.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholinesterase_inhibitor

acetic anhydride
 acetic anhydride

one of the most important organic anhydrides, used to manufacture pain-relieving pharmaceuticals (aspirin, paracetamol), modified starches, emulsifiers, liquid crystal polymers, dyestuffs and cellulose acetate, a major ingredient in photographic films and textiles.

acetochlor
 acetochlor

acetochlor is a chloroacetanilide herbicide. Its mode of action is elongase inhibition, and inhibition of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) cyclisation enzymes, part of the gibberellin pathway.

It is herbicide applied in weed control in corn; pre-emergence or pre-planting application, with soil incorporation.

It is particularly important as a replacement for atrazine in the case of some important weeds. In spite of beeing less harmful than atrazine, several regulatory measures are introduced worldwide in prder to ensure its safe use.

Acetochlor has been classified as a probable human carcinogen. It may cause nasal turbinate tumors via the generation of a tissue reactive metabolite that leads to cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation in the nasal epithelium (similar mechanism to alachlor and metholaclor). It's also a well-established thyroid disruptor.

In the US scetochlor is the third most frequently detected herbicide in natural waters. It can accelerate metamorphosis in amphibians. It can also affect the development of fish. It is toxic for algae and duckweed.

It is under classification in the Eu in 2014.

See also:

http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/f097b7bf-0c47-4414-b942-fae16b9e6bc4

http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/acetochlor/

acetone
 acetone

acetone is an organic solvent of industrial and chemical significance, acetone is capable of dissolving many fats, resins and cellulose esters. It is used extensively in the manufacture of artificial fibres and explosives, as a chemical intermediate in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent for vinyl and acrylic resins, lacquers, paints, inks, cosmetics (such as nail polish remover), and varnishes. It is used in the preparation of paper coatings, adhesives, and is also employed as a starting material in the synthesis of many compounds.

acid rain
 acid rain

acid rain is a generic term used for precipitation that contains an high concentration of sulfuric and nitric acid. These acids form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water. Acidified particulate matter in the atmosphere is deposited by precipitation onto a surface, often eroding the surface away. This precipitation generally has a pH less than 5 and sometimes much lower depending on the concentration of acidic components. Acid rain has negative impacts on the environment and human health.

acidification
 acidification

the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions See also acid rain

acidification of soil
 acidification of soil
acre
 acre

acre is a unit of area. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land. Conversion to other area-units:

acres ares 40.468 564 224
acres hectares 0.404 685 642 24
acres square feet 43,560
acres square kilometers 0.004 046 856 422 4
acres square meters 4,046.856 422 4
acres square miles (statute) 0.001 562 50
acres square yards 4,840
active chlorine
 active chlorine

active chlorine can be a single chlorine atom that is a radical and therefore highly reactive. It can also be a molecule containing chlorine that is reactive.
Active chlorine's most notable role in atmospheric chemistry is in catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere and the accumulation of active chlorine at the earth's polar stratosphere during the polar night that leads to major ozone hole formation during the spring.
Active chlorine in water serves as disinfectant for drinking water production, and for swimming pool waters. It is also used in general washing and bleaching of food and textile and for washing of industrial tanks.

active transport
 active transport

active transport is the pumping of ions or molecules across a cell membrane with the help of special enzymes, the so called transport proteins, which are built in or bound to the membrane of the cell. Active transport is going into the opposite direction than simple diffusion. While diffusion is a spontaneous process driven by the concentration-difference between two sides of the cell membrane. Molecules or ions are actively transported into the opposite direction (toward the higher concentration side of the memebrane) than by diffusion, so that active transport requires energy.

Active transport in the cells is able to pump molecules through membranes into the higher concentration space, e.g. more and more hydrogen ions into the stomach to reach a very acidic pH value necessary for digestion.

Nutrient uptake is ensured by active trasnport, even if the nutrient ions and molecules are in very low concentration outside the cell.

Ion pumps create charge differences and charge gradients in cell organelles.

Active transport is able to restrict the diffusion of hazardous or any unwanted ions and molecules into the cell.

Active transport may happen by direct energy uptake with the help of the transmembrane enzymes transporting the ions and molecules and having ATP-ase activity at the same time. The other mechanism of molecular trasport utilises the electrochemical potential difference, which is created by pumping ions (by energy consuming active transport) out of cells.

Some toxins e.g. digitalis inhibit the active transport of the cells.

ActiveX, IT
 ActiveX, IT
Active X makes the web-sites more dynamic. It was developed by Microsoft. With ActiveX Download Control can be easily realise batch downloads from Internet/Intranet.
actor of the supply chain, REACH
 actor of the supply chain, REACH

means all manufacturers and/or importers and/or downstream users in a supply chain.

acute
 acute

Acute disease is a disease with either or both of:

  • a rapid onset, as in acute infection
  • a short course (as opposed to a chronic course).

Subacute is defined as between acute and chronic. Chronic is meaning a long term condition.

Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours). To be described as acute toxicity, the adverse effects should occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance.

Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period (months or years).

Acute toxicity test: a short term toxicity or other adverse effect measuring method.

Acute exposure: short term exposure to any dangeres substance or agent.

Acute Chronic Rate
 Acute Chronic Rate

called also ACR, the ratio of acute and chronic toxicty: knowing ACR the level ot concentration of a toxicant's acute toxicity can be converted into chronic toxicity.

acute leukemia
 acute leukemia

cancer of the bone marrow cells that can progress quickly.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

a rapidly progressing cancer in which a large number of abnormal white blood cells - called lymphoblasts - are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. Also called acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It is frequent in childhood. Main causes mey be mutaganic agents or chemical substances.

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

a rapidly progressing cancer in which a large number of abnormal white blood cells are present in the blood and in the bone marrow. Also called acute myeloid leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

acute oral toxicity
 acute oral toxicity

acute oral toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours.

acute reference concentration (ARfC)
 acute reference concentration (ARfC)

an estimate of a continuous inhalation exposure for an acute duration (24 hours or less) to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. It can be derived from a NOAEL, LOAEL, or benchmark concentration, with uncertainty factors generally applied to reflect limitations of the data used.

Uncertainty spanning in ARfC cca. an order of magnitude.

Used in EPA's noncancer health assessments.

acute reference dose (ARfD)
 acute reference dose (ARfD)

an estimate of a chemical substance, expressed on a bodyweight basis, to which a human population (including sensitive subgroups) can be exposed over a short period of time (24 hours or less), without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.

Source, REACH

acute risk
 acute risk

short term risk of chemical substances on humans or ecosystems.

acute systemic toxicity
 acute systemic toxicity

acute systemic toxicity testing is the estimation of the human hazard potential of a substance by determining its systemic toxicity in a test system (currently animals) following an acute exposure. Its assessment has traditionally been based on the median lethal dose (LD50) value - an estimate of the dose of a test substance that kills 50% of the test animals. For a substance to have systemic toxic effects it must be absorbed by the body and distributed by the circulation to sites in the body where it exerts toxic effects. The liver may transform a circulating drug or chemical to another form (biotransformation), and this new metabolite may be the one causing the observed toxicity.

Acute systemic toxicity is assessed following oral, dermal, and/or inhalation exposure(s) - depending upon the anticipated routes of human exposure to the substance. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS), which is scheduled for implementation in 2008, defines acute toxicity as "those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours"

Sources:
UNECE, 2004, p. 109.
http://www.alttox.org/ttrc/toxicity-tests/acute/

acute toxicity
 acute toxicity

short term toxicity. The adverse effects of chemical substances which result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short space of time.
In animal testings "acute" is the toxicity, when the adverse effects occurs within 14 days of the administration of the substance. In ecotoxicity testings acute toxicity is defined as a period of time shorter, than the generation time of the testorganism. The endpoints used for the quantitative characterisation of acute toxicity are: EC50, LC50 or ED50 and LD50 values.

Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period (months or years).

acute toxicity, REACH
 acute toxicity, REACH

acute toxicity concerns the adverse effects, which may result from a single exposure or multiple exposures within 24 hours to a substance in toxicity tests. Exposure relates to the oral, dermal or inhalation routes. Assessment of the acute toxic potential of a chemical is necessary to determine the adverse health effects that might occur following accidental or deliberate short-term exposure: the types of toxic effects, their time of onset, duration and severity, the dose-response relationships, and the sex differences in response. The investigated damages can be clinical signs of toxicity, abnormal body weight changes, and/or pathological changes in organs and tissues, which in some cases may result in death.

Source: REACH

acyclovir
 acyclovir

a drug that fights viruses. It is used to prevent or treat infections you may get when your immune system is not working well. This can happen when cancer treatment weakens the immune system by causing a low white blood cell count.

It is acycloguanosine (ACV), a guanosine analogue antiviral drug, marketed under trade names such as Cyclovir, Herpex, Acivir, Acivirax, Zovirax, and Xovir. One of the most commonly used antiviral drugs, it is primarily used for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections, as well as in the treatment of Varicella zoster (chickenpox) and Herpes zoster.

Acyclovir differs from previous nucleoside analogues in containing only a partial nucleoside structure: the sugar ring is replaced with an open-chain structure. It is selectively converted into acyclo-guanosine monophosphate (acyclo-GMP) by viral thymidine kinase, which is far more effective (3000 times) in phosphorylation than cellular thymidine kinase. Subsequently, the monophosphate form is further phosphorylated into the active triphosphate form, acyclo-guanosine triphosphate (acyclo-GTP), by cellular kinases. Acyclo-GTP has approximately 100 times greater affinity for viral than cellular polymerase. As a substrate, acyclo-GTP is incorporated into viral DNA, resulting in premature chain termination. Although acyclovir resembles a nucleotide, it has no 3' end. Therefore, after its incorporation into a growing DNA strand, no further nucleotides can be added to this strand. It has also been shown that viral enzymes cannot remove acyclo-GTP from the chain, which results in inhibition of further activity of DNA polymerase. Acyclo-GTP is fairly rapidly metabolised within the cell, possibly by cellular phosphatases.

In sum, aciclovir can be considered a prodrug: it is administered in an inactive (or less active) form and is metabolised into a more active species after administration.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aciclovir

adaptation of soil microflora
 adaptation of soil microflora

adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat. This process takes place over many generations, and is one of the basic phenomena of biology.

The term adaptation may also refer to a feature which is especially important for an organism's survival. Such adaptations are produced in a variable population by the better suited forms reproducing more successfully, that is, by natural selection.

Microorganism, due to their short generation time may succesfully be adapted to new environmental conditions, such as temperature, salinity, nutrient supply, toxic contaminants, etc.

The genom of the microorganisms is very versatile: their adaptive genes, which can be swithched on, when necessary, the frequent mutations and the horizontal gene-transfer between the members of the population and the whole microbial community makes the soil microbes flexible and possible to adapt to the utilisation of new substrates (also soil contaminants) and to become resistant to toxic chemical substances. In the soil biofilms, where microorganism are living strongly realted to each-other, special forms of horizontal gene transfer may exist, and the genes necessary fir survival can be dispersed in the community with the help of mobile genetical elements, such as plasmids, jumping genes, phages, etc.

The adaptive behaviour of the soil microorganisms makes possible to eliminate soil contaminants and prevent Earth from continuously increasing contaminant-concentrations in soils.

adaptive enzymes
 adaptive enzymes

adaptive enzymes are inducible enzymes expressed only under conditions in which it is clear of adaptive value, as opposed to a constitutive enzyme which is produced all the time.

Adaptive enzymes are good examples for the efficient functioning of the microbial, plant and animal cells: they do not work (do not synthetize molecules) if not necessary.

To switch-in the production of an adaptive enzyme there is a special mechanism working in the cell: a regulation system with positive or negative feed-back.

The best known adaptive enzyme is the beta-galactosidase, an ezyme which is part of the complex lactase enzyme responsible for the degradation of lactose, the sugar of the milk. This enzyme is produced only in the presence of lactose. Lactose itself is the inductor molecule for the production of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, necessary to split from each other the two sugar-molecules of the disaccharide lactose. The meachanism of enzyme induction is based on the competitive linkage of lactose and the regulatory gene (operator) to the inhibitor molecule.

additional risk (AR)
 additional risk (AR)

the difference between the cancer incidence under the exposure condition and the background incidence in the absence of exposure. The calculated difference in risk of a particular condition between those who are exposed and those who are not. This measure is derived by subtracting the rate (usually incidence or mortality) of the disease among the unexposed persons (Pu) from the corresponding rate among the exposed (Pe), i.e., AR = Pe-Pu. The AR is an absolute measure of the excess risk attributed to exposure.

additive
 additive

within the context of REACH, an additive is a compond that has been intentionally added during the manufacturing process to stabilise the substance. Under other legislation additive can have other functions, e.g. pH-regulator or colouring agent.In REACH the term 'additive' can also have other meanings outside the context of substance identification, for instance in relation to food or feed additives (See REACH, article 2.)

additive effect
 additive effect

the integrated effect of more toxic substances, mixtures of chemical substances, xenobiotica or drogs, which can be quantified as the sum of the effects of the components, contrary to not additive effects, such as antagonism or sinergism.

additive enhanced POP-bioremediation
 additive enhanced POP-bioremediation

an amendment-enhanced bioremediation technology for the treatment of POPs involves the creation of sequential anoxic and oxic conditions. The treatment process involves the following:

1. Addition of solid phase DARAMEND® organic soil amendment of specific particle size distribution and nutrient profile, zero valent iron, and water to produce anoxic conditions.

2. Periodic tilling of the soil to promote oxic conditions.

3. Repetition of the anoxic-oxic cycle until the desired cleanup goals are achieved.

The addition of DARAMEND® organic amendment, zero valent iron, and water stimulates the biological depletion of oxygen, generating strong reducing (anoxic) conditions within the soil matrix. The diffusion of replacement oxygen into the soil matrix is prevented by near saturation of the soil pores with water. The depletion of oxygen creates a low redox potential, which promotes dechlorination of organochlorine compounds. A cover may be used to control the moisture content, increase the temperature of the soil matrix and eliminate runon/run off.

The soil matrix consisting of contaminated soil and the amendments is left undisturbed for the duration of the anoxic phase of treatment cycle (typically 1-2 weeks). In the oxic phase of each cycle, periodic tilling of the soil increases diffusion of oxygen to microsites and distribution of irrigation water in the soil. The dechlorination products formed during the anoxic degradation process are subsequently removed trough aerobic (oxic) biodegradation processes, initiated by the passive air drying and tilling of the soil to promote aerobic conditions.

Addition of DARAMEND® and the anoxic-oxic cycle continues until the desired cleanup goals are achieved. The frequency of irrigation is determined by weekly monitoring of soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture is maintained within a specific range below its water holding capacity. Maintenance of soil moisture content within a specified range facilitates rapid growth of an active microbial population and prevents the generation of leachate. The amount of DARAMEND® added in the second and subsequent treatment cycles is generally less than the amount added during the first cycle.

The additive enhanced bioremediation was successfully applied for toxaphene and DDT contaminated soil and sediment.

additive, REACH
 additive, REACH

within the context of REACH, an additive is a compound that has been intentionally added during the manufacturing process to stabilise the substance. Under other legislation additive can have other functions, e.g. pH-regulator or colouring agent.
In REACH the term 'additive' can also have other meanings outside the context of substance identification, for instance in relation to food or feed additives. (See REACH, article 2)
(Source: REACH Glossary)

adenocarcinoma
 adenocarcinoma

adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that begins in cells that line the inside of organs. These organs make substances like hormones or milk. Most breast cancers are of this type. They begin in cells that make milk or in the cells that drain the breast milk.

See also breast cancer.

Source: http://www.breastcancer.org/dictionary/a/adenocarcinoma_t.jsp

adenoma
 adenoma

adenoma is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.

Adenomas can grow from many glandular organs, including the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid, prostate, and others. Some adenomas grow from epithelial tissue in nonglandular areas but express glandular tissue structure.

Although adenomas are benign, over time they may progress to become malignant, at which point they are called adenocarcinomas. Even while benign, they have the potential to cause serious health complications by compressing other structures (mass effect) and by producing large amounts of hormones in an unregulated, non-feedback-dependent manner.

adhesion
 adhesion
adjuváns
 adjuváns

adjuvant is substance, which is added to a formulated pesticide product to act as a wetting or spreading agent, sticker, penetrant, or emulsifier in order to enhance the physical characteristics of the product.

ADN
 ADN

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways.

The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN) was done at Geneva on 26 May 2000 on the occassion of a Diplomatic Conference held under the joint auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR). It entered into force on 29 February 2008.

ADN consists of a main legal text (the Agreement itself) and annexed Regulations and aims at:

(i) ensuring a high level of safety of international carriage of dangerous goods by inland waterways;

(ii) contributing effectively to the protection of the environment, by preventing any pollution resulting from accidents or incidents during such carriage; and

(iii) facilitating transport operations and promoting international trade in dangerous goods.

ADN 2009 is a consolidated version which takes account of these updates and is applicable as from 28 February 2009.

To download:

Volume I:
Agreement and Annexed regulations as applicable as of 28 February 2009: Parts 1, 3 (table C only), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9

PDF
(4.9Mb)

Volume II:
Annexed regulations: Parts 2 and 3 (except table C)

PDF
(2.2Mb)

Corrigendum (ECE/TRANS/203/Corr.1)

PDF
(24Kb)

Source: http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/adn/adn_e.html

adrenaline
 adrenaline

adrenaline, also called epinephrine, is a hormone and neurotransmitter. In stress situation it increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels and dilates air passages and participates in the response of the sympathetic nervous system. Chemically it is a phenyl-ethyl-amine, a special monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from phenylalanine and tyrosine.

adriamycin
 adriamycin

a drug that kills cancer cells by stopping their growth. It can also make it hard for cancer cells to fix damage. It is a type of chemotherapy.

Brand name: Adriamycin

Chemical name: Doxorubicin

Class: anthracycline chemotherapy.

Doxil, daunorubicin, Ellence, and mitoxantrone are other anthracyclines.

How it works: Anthracyclines kill cancer cells by damaging their genes and interfering with their reproduction.

Uses: adriamycin usually is given in combination with other chemotherapy medicines. It's typically used: after surgery to reduce the risk of early-stage breast cancer coming back before surgery to shrink large advanced-stage breast cancer tumors to treat advanced-stage breast cancer

How it's given: adriamycin is given intravenously.

Additional information: Adriamycin can have a toxic effect on the heart. You should be tested for heart problems before starting to take Adriamycin and should be continuously monitored for developing problems during treatment.

Side effects:

  • low white blood cell count
  • increased risk of bleeding from low platelet count
  • appetite changes
  • nail changes
  • hair loss
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • mouth sores
  • heart problems
  • hand-foot syndrome
  • irregular periods -- this can include temporary cessation (usually resume after medication is completed) or permanent cessation of menstrual periods depending on your age and other factors

Source: http://www.breastcancer.org/treatment/druglist/adriamycin.jsp
See also: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682221.html

ADSL, IT
 ADSL, IT

ADSL= Asymmetric DSL

adsorbable organic sulfur
 adsorbable organic sulfur
see AOS

adsorbable organically bound halogens
 adsorbable organically bound halogens
see AOX

adsorbent
 adsorbent

adsorbent is an adsorptive material, which is able to adsorb other materials on its specific surface.Adsorption is a consequence of surface energy. Atoms on the surface of the adsorbent are not wholly surrounded by other adsorbent atoms and therefore can attract adsorbates. The exact nature of the bonding depends on the details of the species involved, but the adsorption process is generally classified as physical adsorption by weak van der Waals forces, or chemical adsorption by ionic or covalent bonding.

Most weel known adsorbents are activated carbon, activated zeolites, bentonites, aluminium-oxides, magnesium-oxides, silica gels, ceramics, polimers, nanoadsorbers. After use most of the adsorbents can be regenerated and reuse.

adsorber
 adsorber

adsorber is a device filled with absorbent, which is a solid material, such as activated carbon, that has a high surface area and is used to capture a gas or liquid.

adsorption
 adsorption

adsorption is the accumulation of atoms or molecules on the surface of a material. This process creates a film of the absorbate (the molecules or atoms being accumulated) on the adsorbent's surface. It is different from absorption, in which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution. The term sorption encompasses both processes.

Adsorption is often confused with absorption, where the substance being collected or removed actually penetrates into the other substance

Adsorption is a consequence of surface energy: in a bulk material, all the bonding requirements of the constituent atoms of the material are filled by other atoms in the material. However, atoms on the surface of the adsorbent are not wholly surrounded by other adsorbent atoms and therefore can attract adsorbates. The exact nature of the bonding depends on the details of the species involved, but the adsorption process is generally classified as a physical process in which weak secondary boundings with van der Waals forces plays role, or a chemisorption, in which covalent bonding is characteristic.

Adsorption is widely used in environmental technologies and soil remediation for soil air or soil gas treatment, for the treatment of the desorbed contaminants from solid soil by thermal desorption technology, for the recovery of valuable gases or vapours, for ground water, surface water, drainages water and leachate treatment, for the purification of extracts, etc.

advection
 advection

to transport or carry. For example particulate matter is transported in air by wind, liquid form matter is flowing and contaminants are transported by this flow, etc.

adverse effect
 adverse effect

change in morphology, physiology, growth, development or lifespan of an organism which results in impairment of its functional capacity or impairment of its capacity to compensate for additional stress or increased susceptibility to the harmful effects of other environmental influences. (Source: REACH Glossary)

adverse health effect
 adverse health effect

a change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems.

AECM, Association of European Candle Manufacturers
 AECM, Association of European Candle Manufacturers

Association of European Candle Makers represents candle manufacturers and suppliers to the candle industry in Europe.

Founded in 1962 in Paris, the Association acts as the collective voice for the candle industry to promote the safe use and enjoyment of candles, to improve the competitiveness of all companies in Europe and to ensure that their interests are heard and understood.

A non-profit organization, the association’s aims are to promote the European candle industry by developing as far as reasonable common solutions regarding questions of shared interest such as:

  • Quality control procedures
  • Safety standards (pictograms)
  • Raw material standards
  • Investigations regarding environmental influence of burning candles

Source: europecandles.org/

aeration of soil
 aeration of soil

aeration of soil means the amount of air-filled pores in the soil, expressed as the volume difference between total porosity and actual soil moisture. Optimum soil aeration is 30% but strongly depends on the structure and packing state of soil particles; 15–20% is normally satisfactory for the growth of grasses and cereals; below 10% is not good for plant growth.

Aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms in the soil may intesively use oxigene and produce CO2 when biodegradable organic soil-contaminants are present in high concentration. If oxygen have been consumed, the redoxpotential decreases in soil, and slower facultative anaerobs start to dominate: the biodegradation of contaminants slows down.

A biodegradation based soil remediation technology can be intensified by soil aeration, increasing the redoxpotential in the soil and activating aerobic degrading microorganisms. This process is called bioventing.

aerobic
 aerobic

aerobic conditions or processes are those, which require oxigen. In environmental and biological systems biologically available oxigen can be derived from the atmospher in the form of atmospheric air, from the water in the form of water-dissolved oxigen for aquatic-ecosystem, or in the form of soil-air for the soil living organisms. If the oxigen is not enough or not available, the conditions are anoxic. If no oxigen is present at all, we speak about anaerobic conditions.

The biological activity in the presence of oxigen is called: aerobiosis, under anaerobic conditions: anaerobiosis.

aerodynamic noise
 aerodynamic noise

acoustic noise caused by turbulent airflow over the surface of a body.

afforestation
 afforestation

converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.

aggregate
 aggregate

an aggregate is a collection of items that are gathered together to form a total quantity.

In environmental sciences we use the term "aggregate" for those crystals, atoms, ions, molecules or living cells, which are not connected to each other with physical, chemical or biological forces or bondage, but are just gathered together.

aggregate risk
 aggregate risk

the risk associated with all pathways and routes of exposure to a single chemical.

aggressive cancer cells
 aggressive cancer cells

cancer cells that are fast-growing and have a tendency to spread beyond the area where they started.

air
 air
air exhaust wells
 air exhaust wells
air injection
air injection into soil
 air injection into soil
air load (emission)
 air load (emission)
air polluting substance
 air polluting substance
air polluting substances with a firm condition
 air polluting substances with a firm condition
air polluting substances with a natural origin
 air polluting substances with a natural origin
air polluting substances with an artificial origin
 air polluting substances with an artificial origin
air pollution
 air pollution

the contamination of the atmosphere by any toxic or radioactive gases and particulate matter as a result of human activity.

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 84/360/EEC of 28 June 1984 on the combating of air pollution from industrial plants definition is: air pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the air resulting in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, harm living resources and ecosystems and material property and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment.

Source: Council Directive 84/360/EEC of 28 June 1984 on the combating of air pollution from industrial plants, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31984L0360:EN:HTML

air pollution emission limit value
 air pollution emission limit value
air pollution, technological emission limit value
 air pollution, technological emission limit value
air pressure
 air pressure

air pressure is the force exerted by the weight of a column of air above a particular region. Air pressure is measured in pounds per square inch, inches of mercury, or millibars.

air quality criteria
 air quality criteria

level of pollution, and lengths of exposure, above which adverse human health and welfare effects may occur. A prescribed level of atmospheric pollution allowed for a certain compound during a specific time in a specific geographical area. Standards are set by regulating bodies, or agencies.

air soiling potential
 air soiling potential
air sound inhibition
 air sound inhibition
air sparging
 air sparging

air sparging involves the injection of air or oxygen through a contaminated aquifer. Injected air traverses horizontally and vertically in channels through the soil column, creating an underground stripper that removes volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants by volatilization. The injected air helps to flush the contaminants into the unsaturated zone. SVE usually is implemented in conjunction with air sparging to remove the generated vapor-phase contamination from the vadose zone. Oxygen added to the contaminated groundwater and vadose-zone soils also can enhance biodegradation of contaminants below and above the water table.

Source: EPA, ClU-In − http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Air_Sparging/cat/Overview/

air toxicology
 air toxicology

air toxicology measures indoor and outdoor air quality and compares to quality criteria.

air- permeability of soil
 air- permeability of soil
air-borne noise
 air-borne noise

noise caused by the movement of large volumes of air and the use of high-pressure air.

air-stripping
 air-stripping
AISE, International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products
 AISE, International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products

A.I.S.E., the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, is the official representative body of this industry in Europe. Our membership totals 29 national associations across Europe and beyond. Through this network, we represent over 900 companies supplying both household and professional cleaning and maintenance products and services. These range from small and medium-sized enterprises to large multinationals.

Industry vision

The cleaning and maintenance products industry in Europe has collectively defined its vision as:

"We benefit society by contributing to the sustainable improvement of the quality of life through hygiene and cleanliness, in a constructive, competitive and innovative way.”

In practice this is done in the following ways:

  • The industry develops and markets products that are essential to society.
  • Cleaning and maintenance products, used in the home or industrial and institutional (I&I) settings, support public health and hygiene, thus improving the quality of life.
  • Being highly competitive, the industry is continually innovating to meet consumer and customer needs better, through increased product performance and convenience, while ensuring human and environmental safety.
  • The industry is committed to sustainability and to continually steering its progress through the sector, in dialogue with all partners and stakeholders.

A.I.S.E.'s mission

A.I.S.E.’s mission is to act through its network as the industry’s expert and valued voice in Europe. It ensures and maintains open dialogue with EU institutions, international organisations, NGOs, Industry partners and other stakeholders. This is to enable the cleaning and maintenance products industry to achieve its vision of a sustainable future for all while improving the environment in which the industry operates.

Source: www.aise.eu

alcohol bioconversion
 alcohol bioconversion
algebra
 algebra

algebra is the branch of mathematics that uses letters, symbols, and/or characters to represent numbers and express mathematical relationships. Those symbols are called variables.

algicide or algaecide
 algicide or algaecide

substance intended to kill algae.

algorithm
 algorithm

algorithm is an established and well-defined step-by-step method used to achieve a desired mathematical result.

aliphatic hydrocarbons
 aliphatic hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons in which the carbon-hydrogen groupings are arranged in open chains (that might include branches). The term includes paraffins and olefins and provides a distinction from aromatics and naphthenes, which have at least some of their carbon atoms arranged in closed chains or rings. The paraffins, called also alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, in their molecules the carbon atoms are bound by single bonds, e.g. hexadecane (C16H34). The olefins are unsaturated hydrocarbons, in their molecules there are carbon atoms, which are bound by double bond, e.g. hexadecene (C16H34) contains one double bond, butadiene (C4H4) contains two double bonds.

aliphyatic compound
 aliphyatic compound

aliphatic compounds are acyclic or cyclic, non-aromatic carbon compounds.

In aliphatic compounds, carbon atoms can be joined together in straight chains, branched chains, or non-aromatic rings (in which case they are called alicyclic). Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, joined by single bonds (alkanes), or unsaturated, with double bonds (alkenes) or triple bonds (alkynes). Besides hydrogen, other elements can be bound to the carbon chain, the most common being oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliphatic_compound

aliquot sample
 aliquot sample

in analytical chemistry, the term aliquot is generally used to define any representative portion of the sample.

alkanes
 alkanes
saturated hydrocarbons that contain only single carbon-carbon bonds. The chemical name indicates the number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix -ane, e.g. octane consists of 8 carbon atoms

alkenes
 alkenes
hydrocarbons (branched or not) that contain carbon-carbon double bonds (called also olefins), e.g. ethylene H2C=CH2. The chemical name indicates the number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix -ene, e.g. hexadecene (C16H34) contains 16 carbon atoms and one double bond, butadiene (C4H4) contains 4 carbon atoms and two double bonds.

alkyl amines
 alkyl amines

starting materials in the manufacture of long-chain, primary alkyl amines are natural fats and oils, or synthetic products of the petrochemical industry. Intermediates are alkyl nitriles, which are formed from carboxylic acids and ammonia over dehydrating catalysts (Al2O3, ZnO, or salts of Mn or Co) in liquid-phase reactors or liquid- and vapor-phase reactors at 280-360°C. The nitriles are hydrogenated at a temperature of 80-180°C and a pressure of 1 -10 MPa in the presence of nickel or cobalt catalysts.

R – CN + 2 H2 → R – CH2 – NH2

The formation of secondary and tertiary amines as by-products is generally inhibited by addition of ammonia. Conversion is usually carried out in autoclaves operated in batch process, although there are also plants which operate in continuous process. Depending on the use, alkyl amines are used as such or purified by distillation under reduced pressure.

The most widespradly used alkyl amines are the followings:

  • Tallow alkyl amine is a white waxy solid with a pungent amine-like smell at 20 °C.
  • (Z)-Octadec-9-enylamine is a light yellow paste-like liquid with amine-like odour at 20 °C.
  • 1-Octadecanamine is a colourless solid with amine-like odour at 20 °C.
  • Hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine is a white wax with amine-like odour at 20 °C.
  • Cocos alkyl amine is a slightly yellow liquid with amine-like odour at 20 °C.

Identification numbers, names and molecular weights are specified here:

Amines, tallow alkyl

  • CAS Number: 61790-33-8
  • EINECS Number: 263-125-1
  • IUPAC Name: Tallow alkyl amine
  • Molecular formula: unspecified
  • Molecular weight: 267 as average (undistilled)
  • Synonyms: Tallow fatty amines
  • C14-C18 Alkylamines
  • CA Index Name: Amines, tallow alkyl

(Z)-Octadec-9-enylamine

  • CAS Number: 112-90-3
  • EINECS Number: 204-015-5
  • IUPAC Name: (Z)-Octadec-9-enylamine
  • Molecular formula: C18H37N
  • Structural formula: C18 hydrocarbon chain with one doublebond -NH2
  • Molecular weight: 267.5 g/mol
  • Synonyms: Oleylamine
  • cis-9-Octadecenylamine
  • CA Index Name: 9-Octadecen-1-amine, (Z)-

Octadecylamine

  • CAS Number: 124-30-1
  • EINECS Number: 204-695-3
  • IUPAC Name: 1-Octadecanamine
  • Molecular formula: C18H39N
  • Structural formula: saturated C18 hydrocarbon chain-NH2
  • Molecular weight: 269.5 g/mol
  • Synonyms: Octadecylamine
  • Stearylamine
  • 1-Aminooctadecane
  • CA-Index name: 1-Octadecanamine

Amines, hydrogenated tallow alkyl-

  • CAS Number: 61788-45-
  • EINECS Number: 262-976-6
  • IUPAC Name: hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine
  • Molecular formula: unspecified
  • Molecular weight: 263 g/mol as average
  • Synonyms: N-hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine
  • CAS Index name: Amines, hydrogenated tallow alkyl-

Amines, coco alkyl-

  • CAS Number: 61788-46-3
  • EINECS Number: 262-977-1
  • IUPAC Name: cocos alkyl amine
  • Molecular formula: unspecified
  • Structural formula: C8-18 hydrocarbon chain-NH2
  • Molecular weight: 194 - 204 g/mol (undestilled)
  • Synonyms: Cocoamine
  • Coconut oil alkyl amine
  • CAS index name: Amines, coco alkyl-

Alkyl amines are toxic both on the ecosystem and humans.

Ecosystem

Primary alkyl amines need to be classified for possible effects on the environment as N, R 50/R53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. The classification “R 50” is justified by the results of the short-term toxicity tests using fish, daphniae and algae. The LC/EC50 values relevant for classification and labelling were mainly lower than 0.1 mg/l. Using river water as test medium, the effective concentrations increase due to reduced bioavailability probably by adsorption of the test substances. However, most of the LC/EC50 values determined in river water were also < 0.1 mg/l demonstrating the high toxicity of the primary alky amines for aquatic organisms and supporting clearly the “R50” classification.

In most of the tests on ready biodegradability the pass level criteria were reached failing the 10-day window criterion. Due to the high adsorption of the primary alkyl amines it is assumed that the test substances were only partially accessible for degradation in the tests. Additional tests indicate a comparability of the rates during the exponential part of the degradation curve with readily biodegradable substances. Taking the experimental results together, primary alkyl amines are classified as readily degradable, fulfilling the 10-days window.

However, the available information indicate for a high bioaccumulation potential. The calculated LogPOW is approximately 7, and using a QSAR approach the BCF is estimated to be 158 l/kg. (Meylan et al. 1999). In addition, a preliminary study on bioconcentration using fish and hexadecylamine as test substance was performed. Although the test was performed as research project without GLP and the conditions were not standard, according to this study the BCF for hexadecylamine might range between 200 and 2,400 depending on the parameters assumed to calculate the ratio. Since hexadecylamine is one of the main components of the primary alkyl amines considered in this report, a classification for the group basing on th is test is justified: Long term adverse effects in the aquatic environment cannot be excluded (R50/R53).

Human Health

According to the data presented below the substances in the category “primary alkyl amines” have to be classified with respect to human health as following:

Amines, tallow alkyl

  • Xn; R22 Harmful if swallowed
  • C Corrosive
  • R35 Causes severe burns
  • Xn; R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

(Z)-Octadec-9-enylamine

  • Xn; R22 Harmful if swallowed
  • C Corrosive
  • R34 Causes burns
  • Xn; R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

Octadecylamine

  • Xi; R38 irritating to skin
  • Xi; R 41 risk of serious damage to the eyes
  • Xn; R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

Amines, hydrogenated tallow alkyl

  • Xi, R38 irritating to skin
  • Xi; R41 risk of serious damage to the eyes
  • Xn; R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

Amines, coco alkyl

  • Xn; R22 Harmful if swallowed
  • C; R35 Corrosive:Causes severe burns
  • Xi, R37 Irritating to respiratory system
  • Xn; R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

Source: http://echa.europa.eu/doc/trd_substances/amines_hydrogenated_tallow_alkyl/ann_xv_trd/trd_germany_amines_hydrogenated_tallow_alkyl.pdf

Amines, tallow alkyl

CAS Number: 61790-33-8

EINECS Number: 263-125-1

IUPAC Name: Tallow alkyl amine

Molecular formula: unspecified

Molecular weight: 267 as average (undistilled)

Synonyms: Tallow fatty amines

C14-C18 Alkylamines

CA Index Name: Amines, tallow alkyl

(Z)-Octadec-9-enylamine

CAS Number: 112-90-3

EINECS Number: 204-015-5

IUPAC Name: (Z)-Octadec-9-enylamine

Molecular formula: C18H37N

Structural formula: C18 hydrocarbon chain with one doublebond -NH2

Molecular weight: 267.5 g/mol

Synonyms: Oleylamine

cis-9-Octadecenylamine

CA Index Name: 9-Octadecen-1-amine, (Z)-

Octadecylamine

CAS Number: 124-30-1

EINECS Number: 204-695-3

IUPAC Name: 1-Octadecanamine

Molecular formula: C18H39N

Structural formula: saturated C18 hydrocarbon chain-NH2

Molecular weight: 269.5 g/mol

Synonyms: Octadecylamine

Stearylamine

1-Aminooctadecane

CA-Index name: 1-Octadecanamine

Amines, hydrogenated tallow alkyl-

CAS Number: 61788-45-2

EINECS Number: 262-976-6

IUPAC Name: hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine

Molecular formula: unspecified

Molecular weight: 263 g/mol as average

Synonyms: N-hydrogenated tallow alkyl amine

CAS Index name: Amines, hydrogenated tallow alkyl-

Amines, coco alkyl-

CAS Number: 61788-46-3

EINECS Number: 262-977-1

IUPAC Name: cocos alkyl amine

Molecular formula: unspecified

Structural formula: C8-18 hydrocarbon chain-NH2

Molecular weight: 194 - 204 g/mol (undestilled)

Synonyms: Cocoamine

Coconut oil alkyl amine

CAS index name: Amines, coco alkyl-

alkyl group
 alkyl group

a group of carbon and hydrogen atoms that branch from the main carbon chain or ring in a hydrocarbon molecule. The simplest alkyl group, a methyl group, is a carbon atom attached to three hydrogen atoms.

alkylating agents in cancer therapy
 alkylating agents in cancer therapy

alkylating agents is a group of chemotherapy drugs. These drugs kill cancer cells by stopping their growth. They can also make it hard for cancer cells to repair damage. Some common alkylating agents are cyclophosphamide (brand name: Cytoxan) and fluorouracil (also called 5-FU or 5-fluorouracil; brand name: Adrucil).

alkynes
 alkynes
aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds, such as acetylene: HC≡CH.

all of dust-control degree
 all of dust-control degree
allergenes
 allergenes

an allergen is a nonparazitic antigen, capable of stimulating hypersensitivity reaction in sensitiva individuals. It means that most humans mount significant immunresponses only as a defense against parasitic infections. However, some allergic individuals mount this immunresponse against common environmental antigens, pollens, foods, animal material, etc.

Officially, the USA FDA (Food and Drug Administration) does recognize 8 foods as being common for allergic reactions in a large segment of the sensitive population, which includes, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, milk, shellfish, fish, wheat and their derivatives, soy and their derivatives, and sulphites (chemical based, often found in flavors and colors in foods) at 10ppm and over.

Most frequent allergens:
Foods: out of the FDA list many fruits (strowberry) and vegetables (celery), eggs, legumes, milk and milkproducts, all kind of seafood, sesame, etc.
Animal products: cat allergy, fur and dander, cocroach, wool and feather, dust mite.
Drugs: penicillin, sulfonamides, salicylates, anaesthetics.
Insect stings: bee, wasp, mosquito
Mold spores
Plant pollens: grasses, weeds and trees.

Most frequent allergies:
asthma, hay-fiver, skin rush, eczema, food allergy

Source: Wikipedia

allergic contact dermatitis
 allergic contact dermatitis

a contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.

allergy
 allergy

allergy is a disorder of the human immune system. Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens.

It is kind of hypersensitivity and is characterised by excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophil granulocites by a type of antibody known as IgE, resulting in an extreme inflammatory response. Common allergic reactions include eczema, hives, hay fever, asthma attacks, food allergies, and reactions to the venom of stinging insects such as wasps and bees.

Mild allergies like hay fever are highly prevalent in the human population and cause symptoms such as allergic conjunctivitis, itchiness, and runny nose. Allergies can play a major role in conditions such as asthma. In some people, severe allergies to environmental or dietary allergens or to medication may result in life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and potentially death.

A variety of tests now exist to diagnose allergic conditions; these include testing the skin for responses to known allergens or analyzing the blood for the presence and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Treatments for allergies include allergen avoidance, use of anti-histamines, steroids or other oral medications, immunotherapy to desensitize the response to allergen, and targeted therapy.

The medical specialty concerned with allergies is allergology.

(Source: Wikipedia)

allocation rule, LCA
 allocation rule, LCA
alloy
 alloy
alloy means a metallic material, homogenous on a macroscopic scale, consisting of two or more elements so combined that they can not be readily separated by mechanical means has been granted for that use or unless an exemption applies (Source: REACH).
alpha-ketoglutaric acid
 alpha-ketoglutaric acid

alpha-ketoglutaric acid bounds ammonia (in the form of α-ketoglutarate) produced by de-amination of glutamate. It plays important role in the Krebs-cycle, in the synthesis of amino-acid glutamine, in the ammonia-cycle. It is co-substrate for some oxigenase enzymes.

It is used as dietary supplement, mainly for body builders.

alternative electronacceptor
 alternative electronacceptor
alternative energy source
 alternative energy source

any energy source that can be utilised without the use of burning fossil fuels and as a consequence without the undesired effects of the replaced fuels. Such alternative sources are almost always a renewable energy source such as hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power or bioenergy from biomass. The latter one is questionable from the point of view of eco-efficiency: a life cycle assessment may decide its ecologically friendly or not friendly character. Biogas from organic waste or briquette from waste biomass can be ecologically friendly, but palm oil produced on the soil of killed rain-forest, cannot be eco-efficient.

aluminium phosphide
 aluminium phosphide

aluminium phosphide is an inorganic compound used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant. This colourless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due to the presence of impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation. It has a strong, garlic like smell.

EC Number: 244-088-0; CAS number: 20859-73-8

It is not a highly flammable solid, but in contact with water it evolves highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities. The gas ignites spontaneously. Phosphine (PH3) is produced when hydrolysing.

Aluminium phosphid is used as a rodenticide, insecticide, and fumigant for stored cereal grains. It is used to kill small verminous mammals such as moles, and rodents. The tablets or pellets typically also contain other chemicals that evolve ammonia which helps to reduce the potential for spontaneous ignition or explosion of the phosphine gas.

As a rodenticide, aluminium phosphide pellets are provided as a mixture with food for consumption by the rodents. The acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic phosphine gas. Other pesticides similar to aluminium phosphide are zinc phosphide and calcium phosphide.

Aluminiumphosphid a semiconductor material is usually alloyed with other binary materials for applications in devices such as light-emitting diodes, such as aluminium gallium indium phosphide.

It is classified under REACH and CLP as following:

Hazard classes, Hazard categories

  • Water-reactivity 1
  • Acute Toxicity 2
  • Acute Toicity 3
  • Aquatic Acute 1

Hazard statements

  • H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
  • H300 Fatal if swallowed
  • H311 Toxic in contact with skin
  • H400 Very toxic to aquatic life

Sources:

http://echa.europa.eu/doc/consultations/cl/CLH_AXVREP_DE_Aluminium%20phosphide.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_phosphide

amalgam
 amalgam

amalgam is an alloy formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, notable exceptions being iron and platinum. Silver-mercury amalgams are important in dentistry, and gold-mercury amalgam is used in the extraction of gold from ore.

Dental amalgam: 50% mercury and 50% powder form metal mix of silver, lead, tin and copper.

Potassium amalgam, sodium amalgam and ammonium amalgam are industrial chemicals.

Mercury as alloying agent in mining had been used for gold mining and gold processing - extraction from ore.

Aluminium amalgam is a reducing agent, thallium amalgam is used in thermometers for measuring low temperature (minus 58 oC. Tin amalgam was used for mirror coating in the 19th centiry.

Mercury can analytically be detected and determined by the amalgam probe, an analytical method based on quantitative amalgam formation.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalgam_%28chemistry%29

ambient noise or vibration source
 ambient noise or vibration source
American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
 American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)

ASTM International is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world-a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Known for their high technical quality and market relevancy, ASTM International standards have an important role in the information infrastructure that guides design, manufacturing and trade in the global economy.

Source: http://www.astm.org/

AMFEP, Association of Manufacturers and Formulators of Enzyme Products
 AMFEP, Association of Manufacturers and Formulators of Enzyme Products

The Association of Manufacturers and Formulators of Enzyme Products - AMFEP - is a non-profit European industry association created in 1977.

Its mission is to contribute to a comprehensible and workable regulatory environment for enzymes, which provides legal certainty to our members and our customers.

AMFEP serves as a hub for the information exchange and dialogue between enzymes producers and formulators, industry organisations, the scientific community and policy makers and promotes co-operation on regulatory and safety aspects of enzymes.

The main objectives of AMFEP are:

  • to provide a common basis for representing the interests of its members both toward the institutions of the European Union as well as national authorities;
  • to represent the interests of its members in international organisations;
  • to assure a free flow of information between its members on developments related to the regulatory status of enzymes in the EU;
  • to inform its customers and other interested parties on the efficacy and safety aspects of its enzyme products;
  • to defend and promote the products of the enzyme industry.

Members of AMFEP produce and sell enzymes for use in food, feed, detergents and other non-food industries, excluding enzymes for pharmaceutical and diagnostic use.

Amfep fruitfully co-operates with European institutions and partner associations in the EU, Japan and USA.

Amfep has observer status in Codex Alimentarius and is Member of the EFSA Stakeholders Consultative platform.

Amfep is also a founding member of the International Enzymes Co-ordination Group (IECG)

Source: http://www.amfep.org/

amino acid
 amino acid

amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side chain that varies between different amino acids. Alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, where R is an organic substituent, play important role in the metabolism of living organisms. One particularly important function is as the building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of amino acids. Every protein is chemically defined by this primary structure, its unique sequence of amino acid residues, which in turn define the three-dimensional structure of the protein.

Amino acids are synthesized from Glutamate, which is formed by amination of α-ketoglutarate:

α-Ketoglutarate + NH4+ = Glutamate

Afterwards, Alanine and Aspartate are formed by transamination of Glutamate. All of the remaining amino acids are then constructed from Glutamate or Aspartate, by transamination of these two amino acids with one α-keto acid.

Humans are able to synthetise only part of the necessary amino-acids, 8 pf them are so calle essential aminoacids, which should be taken up by nutrition. The essential amino acids are: Isoleucine, Leucine, Lizyne, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophane and Valine.

ammonia
 ammonia

ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water.

ammonium-ion
 ammonium-ion

ammonium is a positive ion (NH4+) in the solution of NH3 in water.

anaemia
 anaemia

anaemia or anemia, decrease in normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.

anaerobic
 anaerobic

anaerobic is a technical word which means without air. Air is generally used to mean atmospheric oxygen. Anaerobic is the opposite aerobic.

In the environmnetal technologies the absence of atmospheric oxygen is indicated as anoxic; and anaerobic is used to indicate the absence of a common electron acceptor such as nitrate, sulfate or oxygen.

anaerobic biodegradation, anaerobic digestion
 anaerobic biodegradation, anaerobic digestion
anaerobic digestion based technology
 anaerobic digestion based technology
analysis
 analysis

detailed examination of anything complex, made in order to understand its nature or to determine its essential features, such as composition, inner structure, distribution of components and any consequences of these, association and other relations between the components.

This kind of detailed analysis is applied by economy, engineering, environmental science and practice, ecology, social sciences, etc. It is often mixed up with "assessment", which is qualitative and quantitative characterisation of the targeted health, environmental, industrial, economical, social, educational, political, etc. situation and it serves as basis for analysis.

In the field of chemistry it covers chemical analyses. It is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.

Qualitative analysis gives an indication of the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of components is generally performed prior to analysis.

Chemical analytical methods are classified according the tool they apply. According to the tools we differentiate between qualitative and quantitative analyses as well as preparatory methods.

Aim of the qualitative analysis is to find a direct or indirect proof for the presence of the substance in question or its product. Qualitative tools are: identification of the chemical compound based on physico-chemical behaviour (colour, melting point, flame-ionisation, mass-spectrum), chemical reactions, including biochemical and molecular biological (e.g. DNA) techniques, such as product of the chemical substance with a specific chemical reagent. In case of biologically active substances, the product of a biochemical reaction or the response of a biological system can also be measured. A new and very efficient analytical tool is the identification of certain DNA sequences.

Quantitative tools are based on measuring mass, volume, flux or intensity. For measuring the quantity-related endpoint the following traditional and instrumental methods can be used: gravimetry, volumetry, microscopy, spectrometry, mass spectrometry, electrochemical and thermal techniques, etc. Most of the quantitative tools apply standards to be able to express the result of the measured endpoint in concentration.

For the separation of the components of a mixture the traditional analysis applies precipitation, extraction, and distillation, the instrumental tools are the different chromatographic and electrophoretic methods.

Chemical analyses has widespread use in diagnosis and remediation, environmental science and practice, chemical industries, agriculture, food industry and all kind of other industries. The utilisation of analytical methods includes monitoring, early warning or quality assurance on the fields of human health, environment and industries.

analyte
 analyte
chemical for which a sample (environmental sample, food, waste, biological sample, etc.) is tested, or analysed.

analyte, a substance to be analysed
 analyte, a substance to be analysed

a substance measured in the laboratory. A chemical substance for which a sample (such as water, air, or blood) is tested in a laboratory. For example, if the analyte is cadmium, the laboratory test will determine the amount of cadmium in the sample and the result will be given in Cd-concentration.

androgen hormones
 androgen hormones

any steroid hormone that promotes male secondary sex characters. The two main androgens are androsterone and testosterone. Called also androgenic hormone.  

The androgenic hormones are internal endocrine secretions circulating in the bloodstream and manufactured mainly by the testes under stimulation from the pituitary gland. To a lesser extent, androgens are produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes, as well as by the ovaries in women. Thus women normally have a small percentage of male hormones, in the same way that men's bodies contain some female sex hormones, the estrogens. Male secondary sex characters include growth of the beard and deepening of the voice at puberty. Androgens also stimulate the growth of muscle and bones throughout the body and thus account in part for the greater strength and size of men as compared to women.

Source: medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Anti-androgen

angina
 angina

chest pain due to a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply of the heart muscle.

animal modell
 animal modell

a laboratory animal useful for research.

animal testing
 animal testing

human toxicity testing of chemical substances is mainly based on the results of animal toxicity tests. In these tests the information on the effect of chemical substances comes from animal experimentation, which from an extrapolation is possible to man, supposing that the properly selected animal species’ response is analogous to human body’s response and the test-method, the applied test scenario perfectly models real human exposure. The main methodology for extrapolation for example from rat to man, is the application of a safety factor, based on experience. The default for the interspecies safety factor is EC50 (human)/EC50 (animal) = 0.1, because drugs and toxic chemical substances are ten times more potent in humans based on existing pharmacological and toxicological data.

Animal data are suitable to establish the dose or the concentration of the chemical substance that would cause adverse effect, damage or death, and based on these tests we can determine or calculate the lowest effect and the highest no effect concentrations or doses, which are manageable limit values.

Animal testing has many subclasses, according to the applied animal taxon (fish, bird, mouse, rat, dog, monkey, etc.), the type of exposure (acute, repeated or chronic exposure), exposure routes (inhalation, peroral, cutaneous, mixed routes), aim of the test method (toxicity, mutagenicity, reprotoxicity, neurotoxicity testing) and according to the measured endpoint such as death, immobilization, changes in behavior, irritation, corrosion, organ-toxicity (cardiac-, ophthalmic-, cutaneous-, muscle-, bone-, or hepatotoxicity), cellular toxicity (cell death, mitochondrial, perixosome, cellular tight junctions, reactive oxygen species, glutathione and glutathione-transferase, metabolomics, DNA-changes, chemokines, etc.) toxicity on endocrine system, immuntoxicity, phototoxicity, photoallergy.

anionic detergents
 anionic detergents
Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC
 Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC

Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC contains a list of harmonised classifications and labellings for substances or groups of substances, which are legally binding within the EU.
The list is regularly updated through Adaptations to Technical Progress (ATP). Revised and new classifications inserted to the list are proposed by DG ENV (EC Directorate General responsible for environment) and agreed by a Member State vote.
The DG ENV proposal is based on advice from the Technical Committee for Classification and Labelling (TC C&L) with participation of experts from the Member States.
The list is published in OJ L 152 of 30/04/2004 and can be found on the following web-address: http://www.reach-compliance.eu/english/legislation/docs/launchers/launch-annex-1-67-548-EEC.html

Annex VI, CLP
 Annex VI, CLP

Annex VI of the CLP Regulation contains the list of substances, which should be classified according to harmonised classification (legal classification: GHS, Globally Harmonized System). The same role filled formerly Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.

Annex XIII, REACH
 Annex XIII, REACH

Annex XIII contains criteria for the identification of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances, and very persistent and very bioaccumulative substances (vPvB).

Source: REACH


Annex XIV, REACH
 Annex XIV, REACH

Annex XIV: Authorisation Priority List, contains the substances which are subject of authorisation and the specific timeline for sunsetting & application.

Source: REACH

Annex XV. dossier, REACH
 Annex XV. dossier, REACH

Annex XV dossiers are the regulatory instruments for the Authorities (Member States or the Agency) to propose and justify:

  • a harmonised classification and labelling of substances as carcinogenic, mutagenic and or toxic to reproduction (CMR) and as respiratory sensitisers, or for any other endpoint if justification for action at Community level can be provided. Agreement on a dossier for harmonised classification and labelling will lead to the addition of the classification to Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC.
  • the identification of CMR substances, PBT substances, vPvB substances or substances of an equivalent level of concern. Agreement on the identification of a substance as a PBT, vPvB or of an equivalent level of concern means that it is a substance of very high concern and is to be included in the candidate list of substances for eventual inclusion in Annex XIV of the REACH Regulation, and through this be subject to authorisation. Substances with PBT or vPvB properties, wide dispersive use or high volumes will be priority substances for inclusion in Annex XIV.
  • Restriction on the manufacture, placing on the market or use of substances within the Community. Agreement on proposed restrictions will lead to the addition of any agreed restrictions to Annex XVII of the REACH Regulation. Any subsequent manufacture, placing on the market or use of the substance has to comply with the conditions of the restrictions.

Annex XV of the REACH Regulation lays down general principles for preparing these three types of dossier.

Source: REACH

Annex XVI, REACH
 Annex XVI, REACH

Annex XVI is the socio-economic analysis of the substance in question.

Annex XVII, REACH
 Annex XVII, REACH

Annex XVII contains restrictions on the manufacture, placing on the market and use of certain dangerous substances, preparations and articles.

Source: REACH

anomaly
 anomaly

an anomaly is any occurrence or object that is strange, unusual, or unique. It can also mean a discrepancy or deviation from an established rule or trend.

anoxic
 anoxic
antagonism
 antagonism

a biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than would be expected if the known effects of the individual substances were added together.

See also additive effect and synergism or synergistic effect.

anthracene
 anthracene
anti-inflammatory
 anti-inflammatory

anti-infalammatory drugs reduce swelling, fever, and pain, the signs of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs include Aspirin, Motrin, Advil, and Tylenol.

Anti-inflammatory drugs belong to different chemical groups, such as steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, combined ones and antirheumatic agents.

The groups of drugs according to the WHO ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification) system, are the following:

1 Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids

1.1 Butylpyrazolidines

1.2 Acetic acid derivatives and related substances

1.3 Oxicams

1.4 Propionic acid derivatives

1.5 Fenamates

1.6 Coxibs

1.7 Other anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic agents, non-steroids

2 Anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents in combination

2.1 Anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents in combination with corticosteroids

2.2 Other anti-inflammatory/antirheumatic agents in combination with other drugs

3 Specific antirheumatic agents

3.1 Quinolines

3.2 Gold preparations

3.3 Penicillamine and similar agents

3.4 Other specific antirheumatic agents

antiandrogen
 antiandrogen

antoandrogen is a substance that blocks the action of androgens, the hormones responsible for male characteristics. Used to treat prostate cancers that require male hormones for growth.

Many of the natural and man-made environmental contaminants have antiandrogenic effect, phtalates are one example for that.

Environmental compounds affecting the endocrine system, are called are antagonistic to any biochemical molecule of the hormon system. Antiandrogenic chemical substances antagonistically affect androgen receptors and androgen production can negatively affect individuals that come in contact with the compounds. As antoandrogens affect male sex-hormone system, thay are considered as reprotoxic chemical substances, impacting future generations too.

Certain pesticides and insecticides as well as in industrial chemicals contain antiandrogenic chemicals. Natural compounds, such as biologically active phytochemicals may also have antiandrogenic effects. Exposure to these environmental antiandrogens has resulted in adverse effects on animals and from animal testresults and biomonitoring data we can predict the human health riskss of these chemical compound.

Exposure to pesticides and insecticides with antiandrogenic properties has been found to negatively affect humans and laboratory animals. Androgens are important in fetal development as well as in pubertal development. Exposure during critical periods of development can cause reproductive malformations in males while exposure after birth and before puberty can delay pubertal development (Wikipedia).

Animal studies with vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and the DDT metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p.p’-DDE) show irregular reproductive development due to their function as androgen receptor antagonists that inhibit androgen-activated gene expression. Even with low doses of antiandrogenic pesticides, developmental effects such as reduced anogenital distance and induction of areolas were seen in male rats (Gray et al. 2001).

Animal studies show that deformities result in offspring exposed to antiandrogens. Male mice can display malformations that resemble the reproductive organs of females as in the case of exposure to vinclozolin or proymidone. Exposure to vinclozolin or procymidone in utero feminized male offspring, as seen in abnormalities of anogenital distance, small or absent sex accessory glands, hypospadias, undescended testes, retained nipples, cleft phallus, and presence of a vaginal pouch. Male mice exposed before puberty to vinclozolin experienced delayed pubertal development visualized by delayed onset of androgen-dependent preputial separation (Grey et al. 2001).

Ketoconazole's imidazole derivative is used as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent effective against a variety of fungal infections. Although ketoconazole is a relatively weak antiandrogen, side-effects seen as a result of exposure include serious liver damage and reduced levels of androgens from both the testicles and adrenal glands (Grey et al. 2001)

Many organophostphate insecticides behave as androgen receptor antagonists.

Industrial chemicals with antiandrogenic effects are ubiquitous in the environment. Consumer products such as toys and cosmetics may contain phthalates. Phthalates are mainly found in plastics. Fetuses that are exposed to a mixture of pthalates in utero may show signs of disrupted reproductive development. When Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) were combined, reductions in both testosterone synthesis and gene expression of steroidogenic pathway proteins were seen. The result in male rats was undescended testes and abnormal development of reproductive tissues ( Rieder et al. 2010)

Parabens are commonly found in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Paraben esters have been found to mimic androgen antagonist activity. Antiandrogenic endocrine disruption has been shown in aquatic species but the mechanism is unknown.

Natural antiandrogenic chemicals of plant origin are mentioned here (Wikipedia):

3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is definitely antiandrogen, deriving from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and kale. Spearmint tea has antiandrogenic properties in females with hirsutism (excessive hairiness on women). The plant Scutellaria baicalensis (North American skullcap) may also have antiandrogenic properties. The compound N-butylbenzene-sulfonamide (NBBS) isolated from Pygeum africanum (an evergreen tree from Sub-Saharan Africa) is a specific androgen antagonist. Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice, a plant to extract sweetener from) has shown antiandrogenic activity in male rats. A herbal formula (termed KMKKT) containing Korean Angelica gigas (a perennial plant grown in China and Korea) Nakai (AGN) root and nine other oriental herbs has shown in vitro anti-androgen activity.

Sources:

Gray LE, Ostby J, Furr J, Wolf CJ, Lambright C, Parks L, Veeramachaneni DN, Wilson V, Price M, Hotchkiss A, Orlando E, Guillette L. (2001). "Effects of environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals". Human Reproduction Update 2: 248–64, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11392371

Rider CV, Furr JR, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr. (Apr 2010). "Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of reproductive toxicants that disrupt common targe tissues via diverse mechanisms of toxicity". International Journal of Andrology 33: 443–62, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2048704

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiandrogen

antibiotic resistance
 antibiotic resistance

antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance evolves via natural selection acting upon random mutation, but it can also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by plasmid exchange.

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant.

Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through transformation protocols. This can aid in implanting artificial genes into the microorganism. If the resistance gene is linked with the gene to be implanted, the antibiotic can be used to kill off organisms that lack the new gene.

antibiotics
 antibiotics

an antibiotic (from the Ancient Greek: anti = "against", and bios = "life") is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms. It is based on a natural phenomenon, antibiosis, which means antagonistic association between an organism and the metabolic substances produced by another. Formerly only the microbes-made substances were called "antibiotics", but today all man-made, synthetic or semisynthetic compounds are called "antibiotic", which are prodused and used for the inhibition or killing microbes. We distinguish between antibacterial, antifungal, antiprozoal etc. Antibiotics, depending on the target of the antibiotic agent. Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial compounds, used to treat infections in humans and animals caused by microorganisms, to treat food or fodder to prevent fauling and infections through nutrition, etc.

microorganisms easily get resistant to antibiotics, due to a special mechanism, where the gene responsible for the antibiotic resistence moves from one organism to the other in form of mobile genetic elements, causing rapid transformation of a sensitive bacterial populations (e.g. in human body) into a resistent one.

See also antibiotic resistance

antibodies
 antibodies
antibody
 antibody

an antobody is a special fighter protein synthetized by the immune cells of the immune system. They help protect the organism from disease. The immune system prepares a special protein for each kind of "intruder" that enters the body from the outside. These "intruders" are called antigens, which may be an isolated molecule (a protein or a glycoprotein, etc.) or a part of a living cell (e.g. the building blocks of the bacterial cell wall). The fighter proteins link up with the antigens like pieces of a puzzle. Once they're linked, the antigen is inactivated or killed.

anticoagulation during pregnancy
 anticoagulation during pregnancy

anticoagulation during pregnancy is required for the treatment of acute thromboembolism and as a prophilactic measure in high risk situations to avoid the development of venous or arterial thromboembolic complications. Anticoagulants may have adverse effect on both mother and child.

Coumarins, such as warfarine, acenocoumarol or phenprocoumon are known to cross the placenta. Many cases were described where the application of coumarine-type anticoagulants deteriorated the child in utero and was born with congenital abnormalities. The main cause of fetal abnormalities is the inhibition of vitamin K recycling in the cell. It affects bones, cartilages and brain, where the vitamin K-dependent proteins are present and play role.

anticoalugant rodenticides
 anticoalugant rodenticides

anticoagulants are defined as rodenticides, acting by effective blocking of the vitamin K cycle, resulting in inability to produce essential blood-clotting factors — mainly coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII (proconvertin).

The effect of anticoagulant rodenticides have chronic effects: death occurs after one to two weeks after ingestion of the lethal dose, rarely sooner.

The second genaration substances are effective in single-dose. the forst geberation only in multiple-dose.

In addition to the specific metabolic disruption of coagulation, massive toxic doses of 4-hydroxycoumarin or 4-hydroxythiacoumarin and indandione anticoagulants cause damage to tiny blood vessels (capillaries), increasing their permeability, causing diffuse internal bleedings (haemorrhagias). These effects are gradual, developing over several days. In the final phase of the intoxication, the exhausted rodent collapses in hypovolemic circulatory shock or severe anemia and dies calmly.

The main benefit of anticoagulants over other poisons is that the time taken for the poison to induce death means that the rats do not associate the damage with their feeding habits.

First generation rodenticidal anticoagulants generally have shorter elimination half-lives,require higher concentrations (usually between 0.005% and 0.1%) and consecutive intake over days in order to accumulate the lethal dose, and are less toxic than second generation agents.

Second generation agents are far more toxic than first generation. They are generally applied in lower concentrations in baits — usually on the order of 0.001% to 0.005% — are lethal after a single ingestion of bait and are also effective against strains of rodents that became resistant to first generation anticoagulants; thus, the second generation anticoagulants are sometimes referred to as "superwarfarins".

First generation substances: warfarin, coumatetralyl

Second generation prepartions: difenacoum, brodifacoum,flocoumafen and bromadiolone,1,3-indandiones diphacinone, chlorophacinone, pindone.

Sometimes, anticoagulant rodenticides are potentiated by an antibiotic or bacteriostatic agent, most commonly sulfaquinoxaline. The aim of this association is that the antibiotic suppresses intestinal symbiotic microflora, which are a source of vitamin K. Diminished production of vitamin K by the intestinal microflora contributes to the action of anticoagulants. Added vitamin D also has a synergistic effect with anticoagulants.

Vitamin K1 has been suggested, and successfully used, as antidote for pets or humans accidentally or intentionally (poison assaults on pets, suicidal attempts) exposed to anticoagulant poisons. Some of these poisons act by inhibiting liver functions and in advanced stages of poisoning, several blood-clotting factors are absent, and the volume of circulating blood is diminished, so that a blood transfusion (optionally with the clotting factors present) can save a person who has been poisoned, an advantage over some older poisons.

Anticoagulants are used as therapeutic agents in small concentrations for hindering coalgulation and clogging in blood vessels.

Regulatory measures:

In 2008 US EPA announced measures to reduce risks associated with the 9 anticoagulant rodenticides listed below. New restrictions by sale and distribution restrictions, minimum package size requirements, use site restriction, and tamper resistant products would have gone into effect in 2011. These regulations have been delayed pending a legal challenge by one manufacturer, Reckitt-Benkiser:

  • Brodifacoum
  • Bromadiolone
  • Bromethalin
  • Chlorophacinone
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Difenacoum
  • Difethialone
  • Diphacinone
  • Warfarin

In Europe 8 anticolagulant rodenticides are under classification and labeling under CLP Regulation: (EC) No. 1272/2008 as reproductive toxicant causing developmental disorders in the unborn child.

  • brodifacoum
  • bromadiolone
  • chlorophacinone
  • coumatetralyl
  • difenacoum
  • difethialone
  • flocoumafen
  • warfarin.

Warfarin for example has been reviewed as an existing active substance by the Pesticide Registration & Control Division (PRCD) Department of Agriculture, Food & the Marine, Ireland, under both Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing on the market of Plant Protection Products (PPP) and Directive 98/8/EC concerning the placing on the market of biocidal products (BPD). Warfarin was added to Annex I of the PPP Directive in 2005 and to Annex I of the BPD Directive in September 2009. Warfarin is listed in Annex VI of Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008.

antigen
 antigen

antigen binds to a specific antibody, the product of the immune-system. The interaction is similar to a „lock and key”.

antineoplastic agents
 antineoplastic agents

chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen.

The most common chemotherapy agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. This means that chemotherapy also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles. This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Newer anticancer drugs act directly against abnormal proteins in cancer cells; this is termed targeted therapy and, in the technical sense, is not chemotherapy.

The types of antineoplastic agents are the following:

1 Alkylating agents

1.1 Nitrogen mustard analogues

1.2 Alkyl sulfonates

1.3 Ethylene imines

1.4 Nitrosoureas

1.5 Epoxides

1.6 Other alkylating agents

2 Antimetabolites

2.1 Folic acid analogues

2.2 Purine analogues

2.3 Pyrimidine analogues

3 Plant alkaloids and other natural products

3.1 Vinca alkaloids and analogues

3.2 Podophyllotoxin derivatives

3.3 Colchicine derivatives

3.4 Taxanes

3.5 Other plant alkaloids and natural products

4 Cytotoxic antibiotics and related substances

4.1 Actinomycines

4.2 Anthracyclines and related substances

4.3 Other cytotoxic antibiotics

5 Other antineoplastic agents

5.1 Platinum compounds

5.2 Methylhydrazines

5.3 Monoclonal antibodies

5.4 Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation therapy

5.5 Protein kinase inhibitors

5.6 Other antineoplastic agents

5.7 L01XY Combinations of antineoplastic agents

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATC_code_L01

antioxidants
 antioxidants

antioxidant is a substance capable of slowing or preventing theoxidation of other molecules. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start radical chain reactions that damage cells and organs. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Tehrefore antioxidants are often reducing agents, such as ascorbic acid or polyphenols.

Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells. This kind of oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases.

Antioxidants are widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements with the aim of maintaining health and preventing diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. In addition antioxidant compounds have many industrial uses, such as preservatives in food and cosmetics and preventing the degradation of rubber and gasoline.

antropogenic
 antropogenic
AOS
 AOS
AOS (Adsorbable Organic Sulfur compounds) includes only partly overlapping portions of the total concentration of dissolved organic sulfur compounds (DOS) in water. It is a group parameter used, for example, for waste water monitoring or for investigation of water quality changes along flowpaths. Lignine sulfonates and fulvic and humic acids containing sulfur, aromatic sulfonic acids and detergents are typical organic sulfur compounds in surface waters. The method for determining adsorbable organic sulfur compounds (AOS) in water/wastewater is similar to the standard method for determining AOX (DIN 38 409 - H 14). The method is based on the adsorption of sulfur-containing organic compounds on activated carbon, incineration of the loaded carbon and detection of the sulfur dioxide formed. Nowadays there are instruments to carry out the determination automatically. (Source: Schullerer, S. and Frimell, F.H. (1993) Characterization of organic sulphur compounds in surface water by ion-pair adsorption under different conditions. Analytica Chimica Acta 283, 251-257)

AOX
 AOX
AOX stands for “Adsorbable Organically bound halogens" expressed as chloride, and determined according to the relevant European Standard method. AOXs are substances that are adsorbed from water onto activated carbon. They may be volatile substances like trichloromethane (chloroform), chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes or complex organic molecules like dioxins and furans. Most AOXs are chlorine-containing molecules, but bromo- and iodo-AOXs may also occur. These compounds are of industrial origin, persistent, well accumulating, and mostly carcinogenic. They can be formed during industrial processes, and also at chlorination of drinking water. Certain organohalogen compounds are discharged directly into bodies of water or waste water, e.g. pesticide residues from agriculture or components of commercial or household cleaning agents. In waste water, especially in industrial waste water AOX concentrations >1 mg/l are common. The effluents of hospitals may also contain high AOX concentrations because of the x-ray contrast materials with iodine-compounds. The acceptable limit of AOX in drinking water is 50 microgramms/l.

Principle of the European Standard method (ISO 9652:2004):

  1. Addition of activated carbon to the water sample. After the adsorption of water soluble organic compounds on the activated carbon, an elution step is applied to remove the inorganic chloride ions from the carbon by shaking with acidified nitrate solution.

  2. Combustion of the loaded carbon in oxygen stream.

  3. Absorption of the hydrogen halides produced followed by the determination of the halide ions by an argentometric titration, such as microcoulometry. Expression of the result as the mass concentration of chloride.

The detailed description of the method can be found at the following URL address: http://www.ecn.nl/docs/society/horizontal/STD310_AOX.pdf

Recently some biotests have been developed for determination of AOX.

APF for Respiratory Protection Standards
 APF for Respiratory Protection Standards

APF = Assigned Protection Factors for the Respiratory Protection Standards means the workplace level of respiratory protection that a respirator or class of respirators is expected to provide to employees when the employer implements a continuing, effective respiratory protection program.

APFs are used to select the appropriate class of respirators that will provide the necessary level of protection. The airborne hazardous exposure can be from a particulate or a gas or vapor. The APF for theclass of respirators will remain the same. The APF value can only be applied to a class of respirators when the respirators are properly selected and used in compliance with the respiratory protection standards. (Definition of OSHA.)

Source: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/3352-APF-respirators.pdf

APFO and PFOA
 APFO and PFOA

APFO = ammoniumpentadecafluorootanoate EC Number: 223-320-4; CAS number: 3825-26-1

PFOA is used as a group name for PFOA and its salts, and PFOA is mainly produced and used as its ammonium salt, ammonium pentadecafluorootanoate (APFO). However, the perfluorooctanoate anion is the molecule of primary interest. APFO and PFOA are sometimes used interchangeably as both PFO-anion and PFOA (neutral species) exist in solution.

Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO, PFOA or C8) is a surfactant associated with the production of Teflon®, and is also present in products such as fire-fighting foams and may be formed from the microbial degradation of grease-resistant coatings applied to items such as pizza boxes and other food packages. APFO is hardly hydrolyzed, photolyzed or biodegraded under environmental conditions

It is recommended to be classified based on GHS as toxic, irritant, reprotoxic, toxic for specific target organs.

  • Carc. 2, H351
  • Repr. 1B, H360D
  • STOT RE 1, H372
  • STOT RE 2, H373
  • Acute Tox. 4, H332
  • Acute Tox. 4, H302
  • Eye Irrit. 2, H319
  • Toxic; irritant

R phrases: 40-61-48/23-48/22-20/22-36

S phrases: 53-45

Sources:

http://echa.europa.eu/doc/consultations/cl/clh_axrep_afpo.pdf

http://echa.europa.eu/doc/consultations/cl/clh_axrep_pfoa.pdf

apoptosis
 apoptosis

apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms. Programmed cell death involves a series of biochemical events leading to a characteristic cell morphology, such as blebbing, changes to the cell membrane, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation and finally death. Processes of disposal of cellular debris whose results do not damage the organism differentiate apoptosis from necrosis.

In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury. Apoptosis, in general, confers advantages during an organism's life cycle. For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers apoptose; the result is that the digits are separate. Between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult. For an average child between the ages of 8 and 14, approximately 20 billion to 30 billion cells die a day. In a year, this amounts to the proliferation and subsequent destruction of a mass of cells equal to an individual's body weight.

Research in and around apoptosis has increased substantially since the early 1990s. In addition to its importance as a biological phenomenon, defective apoptotic processes have been implicated in an extensive variety of diseases. Excessive apoptosis causes hypotrophy, such as in ischemic damage, whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer.

Source: Wikipedia

appetite suppressant
 appetite suppressant

substance that leads to anorexia or diminished appetite, appetite suppressant.

applet, IT
 applet, IT
application of microbial inoculant for soil remediation
 application of microbial inoculant for soil remediation
application of microbial inoculatnts
 application of microbial inoculatnts
applied research and development
 applied research and development
approved dosimetric service
 approved dosimetric service

approved dosimetric service: a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices, or for the measurement of radioactivity in the human body or in biological samples, or for assessment of doses, whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities.

Source: Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/nuclear/radioprotection/doc/legislation/9629_en.pdf

approximation
 approximation

approximation is a mathematical quantity that estimates a desired quantity.

aquatic toxicology
 aquatic toxicology

aquatic toxicology is based on the response of aquatic ecosystem, both marine and freshwater. Aquatic ecosystem may investigate the whole ecosyste, the diversity of species in a certain ecosystem and compares it to the healthy state of the same ecosystem. According to an other concept toxicology applies toxicity tests on some selected memberes of the aquatic ecosystem and from these results extrapolates on the total ecosystem. The burden of failures is very high in both cases.

aqueous solubility
 aqueous solubility
aquifer
 aquifer

a subsurface layer or layers of rock or other geological strata of sufficient porosity and permeability to allow either a significant flow of groundwater or the abstraction of significant quantities of groundwater.

aquifer, WFD definition
 aquifer, WFD definition

aquifer is a subsurface layer or layers of rock or other geological strata of sufficient porosity and permeability to allow either a significant flow of groundwater or the abstraction of significant quantities of groundwater

Sources of the definition: Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:327:0001:0072:EN:PDF

arable land
 arable land

agricultural land that is cultivated by ploughing, usually to 20 or 30 cm depth. More than 30 cm represents deep ploughing.

Archaea
 Archaea
are
 are

basic unit of area in the metric system, equal to 100 square metres and the equivalent of 0.0247 acre. Its multiple, the hectare (equal to 100 ares), is the principal unit of land measurement for most of the world.

ares square meters 100
ares square yards 119.599
area
 area

the measure, in square units, of the inside of a plane figure. The area must be a measure of a closed region or figure.

area of water protection
 area of water protection
area source
 area source
ARfD
 ARfD
Acute Reference Dose, is the maximum acceptable oral or dermal dose of a toxic substance for humans due to short term exposure. The Acute Reference Dose is an estimate of a chemical substance, expressed on a bodyweight basis, to which a human population (including sensitive subgroups) can be exposed over a short period of time (24 hours or less), without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.
The US EPA defines a "lifelong" oral reference dose too, (abbreviated RfD) as: "an estimate, with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude of a daily oral exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.
argument
 argument

the communication, in verbal or written form, of the reasoning process that leads to a valid conclusion; a valid argument is the result of the conjecture/reasoning process.

arithmetic
 arithmetic

the simplest part of mathematics. Arithmetic means addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division (called operations). They are the foundation for all higher mathematics.

aromatics
 aromatics
compounds containing one or more benzene rings that also may contain sulfur, nitrogen and/or oxygen. Typical contaminants of soil and ground water generally originated from mineral oil. The monoaromatics such as benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene (BTEX) contain one benzene ring in a molecule. There are more aromatic rings in the molecular stucture of polyaromatic or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH).

array
 array

qan arrangement of objects or numbers, usually in rows and/or columns.

Arsenic (As)
 Arsenic (As)

elemental arsenic occurs in two solid modifications: yellow, and grey or metallic, with specific gravities of 1.97, and 5.73, respectively. The element is a steel grey, very brittle, crystalline, semimetallic (metalloid) solid. It tarnishes in air, and when heated rapidly oxidises to arsenous oxide which has a garlic odour.

Arsenic does not often form in its elemental state and is far more common in sulfides and sulfosalts such as arsenopyrite, orpiment, realgar, lollingite and tennantite. Due to the abundance of these arsenic bearing ores and the rarity of native arsenic, it is not an important ore of itself. Native arsenic is found in silver ore veins and is processed along with the silver ore and is therefore is a minor source of arsenic.

Native arsenic is usually found to have a trigonal symmetry but a very rare orthorhombic arsenic is known from Saxony, Germany and is named arsenolamprite. The two minerals are called polymorphs (many shapes) because they have the same chemistry, As, but different structures.

Arsenic toxicity occurs when a person is exposed to arsenic. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in the earth crust.

There are two primary forms of arsenic:

  • Inorganic arsenic—arsenic combined with oxygen, chlorine, or sulfur; found in the environment
  • Organic arsenic—arsenic combined with carbon and hydrogen; found in animals and plants.

Inorganic arsenic is usually more harmful than organic arsenic.

Arsenic occurs naturally in soil and minerals, and may enter the air, water, and soil.

In Hungary there are areas where background concentration of Arsenic is rather high (10 mg/kg in soil and 10 μg/lit in water) and as consequence poses risk on human health.

Arsenic toxicity may occur when a person is exposed to toxic amounts of arsenic due to

  • Breathing air containing arsenic
  • Eating food contaminated with arsenic
  • Drinking water contaminated with arsenic
  • Living in areas with high natural levels of arsenic
  • Working in a job that involves arsenic
article, REACH
 article, REACH
article means an object which during production is given a specific shape, surface or design which determines its function to a greater degree than does its chemical composition. REACH Article 3 (3).
artificial water body
 artificial water body

a body of surface water created by human activity.

asbestos
 asbestos

asbestos is not a mineral in itself. It is a collective term given to a group of minerals whose crystals occur in fibrous forms. The term "asbestos" was adopted for commercial identification.

The six minerals commonly referred to as asbestos come from two distinct groups of minerals. One group is known as serpentines (chrysotile, white asbestos); while the other group is the amphiboles (amosite, brown asbestos; Crocidolite, blue asbestos; Anthophyllite; Tremolite; and Actinolite). While both are silicate minerals, the two groups are chemically and mineralogically distinct.

Source: http://chrysotile.com/en/chrysotile/overview/default.aspx

ASCII, IT
 ASCII, IT

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASD, Aerospace and Defence Industries Association Europe
 ASD, Aerospace and Defence Industries Association Europe

ASD's overall mission is to enhance the competitive development of the Aeronautics, Space, Defence and Security Industry in Europe in partnership with European Institutions and Member associations.

The role of ASD is to:

  • Represent the European industry to promote its interests and to ensure high priority for this sector in European public policy, provide early warning on policy issues, assess impact, initiate and shape policy and develop common positions;
  • Offer a single point of contact between this industry sector and relevant stakeholders in the European institutions;
  • Facilitate the development of SMEs and the Equipment sector within a competitive supply chain;
  • Coordinate at the European level such services and activities as R&T, cooperative European initiatives, environment, standardisation, training/retraining, quality, airworthiness; assess human resource and skills as well as social impact, promote trade in coordination with National Associations, sponsor workshops/conferences initiatives;
  • Promote international cooperation, lead the dialogue with other International Associations and Organisations and represent the European Aerospace and Defence industry towards the industry of other countries/regions where a European common denominator exists.

ASD Key Priorities:

  • AERONAUTICS
  • Continue to work closely with EU institutions and Air Transport stakeholders for the strategic role of manufacturing industry required in SESAR’s deployment phase, in governance and financing;
  • Aim to ensure the synchronisation and interoperability between SESAR and NextGen deployment.
  • DEFENCE
  • Contribute to shape common industry positions on the main aspects affecting the defence sector as a fall-out from the budget crisis, concerning inter alia R&T investment budgets and conditions, demand harmonization and consolidation as well as the functioning of defence markets.
  • SECURITY
  • Promote more visible Security Research activities within Horizon 2020 (budget and programme consolidation);
  • Support creation of a meaningful Security Industrial Policy affecting the whole value chain;
  • Contribute to the EU Cyber Security Strategy
  • SPACE
  • Ensuring the highest efficiency of Horizon 2020/Space, make sure that the content of the work programmes of the EC is defined through Space Strategic Research Agendas (SRA).
  • Promote quick implementation of the Space competence of the EU. Lobby for the sustainable deployment and operations of Space based infrastructures aiming at serving public policy objectives (like Galileo and Copernicus)
  • obby for a Europe-wide Space specific industrial and procurement policy which must aim at supporting the autonomy of Europe to conceive, develop, launch, operate and exploit space systems
  • Ensure the effective implementation of the five key recommendations stemming from the ESA-Industry high-level consultations
  • Support ESA in establishing a forum for continuing this Agency-Industry dialogue on a permanent basis to further improve the exchange of views and concerns

Source: http://www.asd-europe.org/

ASE
ash content
 ash content
asphaltene
 asphaltene
constituents of petroleum products with a high molecular mass (3 000-10 000) not dissolving in pentene, but dissolving in carbon disulfide. Chemically they are PAHs linked by aliphatic chains or rings and functional groups.

aspiration
 aspiration

the entry of secretions or foreign material − including gaseous chemical substances, vapours of liquids or particles of solids − into the trachea and lungs. One of the exposure routes of hazardous chemicals, causing chemical pneumonia, which is an unusual type of lung irritation. Pneumonia usually is caused by a bacteria or virus. In chemical pneumonia, inflammation of lung tissue is from poisons or toxins. Only a small percentage of pneumonias are caused by chemicals.

Many substances can cause chemical pneumonia, including liquids, gases, and small particles, such as dust or fumes, also called particulate matter. Some chemicals only harm the lungs; however, some toxic materials affect other organs in addition to the lungs and can result in serious organ damage or death.

aspiration, inhaling foreign body
 aspiration, inhaling foreign body

inhaling fluid or a foreign body into the bronchi and lungs, often after vomiting.

See also: aspiration

ASR, age-standardized rate
 ASR, age-standardized rate

An age-standardised rate (ASR) is a summary measure of the rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardization is necessary when comparing several populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer. The ASR is a weighted mean of the age-specific rates; the weights are taken from population distribution of the standard population. The most frequently used standard population is the World Standard Population. The calculated mortality rate is then called age-standardised mortality rate (world). The world standard population used within the application is as proposed by Segi (1960) and modified by Doll and al. (1996). The ASR is also expressed per 100,000.

Age distribution of the world standard population

Age group
No of persons alive
0–4 12000
5–9 10000
10–14
9000
15–19 9000
20–24 8000
25–29 8000
30–34 6000
35–39 6000
40–44 6000
45–49 6000
50–54 5000
55–59 4000
60–64 4000
65–69 3000
70–74 2000
75–79 1000
80–84 500
85+ 500
Total 100000
No of persons
0-4 12000
09.máj 10000
14.okt 9000
15-19 9000
20-24 8000
25-29 8000
30-34 6000
35-39 6000
40-44 6000
45-49 6000
50-54 5000
55-59 4000
60-64 4000
65-69 3000
70-74 2000
75-79 1000
80-84 500
85+ 500
Total 100000

Sources

http://www-dep.iarc.fr/WHOdb/glossary.htm

Segi, M. (1960) Cancer Mortality for Selected Sites in 24 Countries (1950–57). Department of Public Health, Tohoku University of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Doll, R., Payne, P., Waterhouse, J.A.H. eds (1966). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. I. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer, Geneva.

assessment
 assessment

Evaluation or appraisal of an analysis of facts and the inference of possible consequences concerning a particular object or process.

assessment factor in risk assessment
 assessment factor in risk assessment

assesment factor applied in a risk assessment procedure is a numerical adjustment used to extrapolate from experimentally determined (dose-response) relationships to estimate the agent exposure below which an adverse effect is not likely to occur.

Related terms: safety factor, uncertainty factor

ATC code
 ATC code

ATC code is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products.

atmosphere
 atmosphere

atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5 × 1018 kg, three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. An altitude of 120 km (75 mi) is where atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), also is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space.

Source: Wikipedia

atmosphere of the Earth
 atmosphere of the Earth

atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5 × 1018 kg, three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. An altitude of 120 km (75 mi) is where atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), also is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space.

Source: Wikipedia

atomic absorption spectrometry
 atomic absorption spectrometry
abbreviated as AAS, the most common technique for detecting elements. It is a high through-put method: it takes not more than 5-6 min to measure the concentration of an element. Atoms of the element of interest in the sample are reduced to free, unexcited ground state atoms, which absorb light at characteristic wavelengths. The decrease in the light intensity is in direct connection with the concentration of the atoms absorbing the light at the given wavelength. Atomization can be induced by flame (flame atomic absorption spectroscopy) or with graphite furnace (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy). The method is widely applied for determination of elements in environmental samples (soil, ground water, sludge, sediment) and in wastes. Atomic absorption spectrometry is a fairly universal analytical method for determination of metallic elements when present in both trace and major concentrations. The EPA employs this technique for determining the metal concentration (dissolved, suspended and total) in samples from a variety of matrices. About 70 elements can be measured except B, C, N, O, S, halogens, noble gases and transuranic elements with short life time. A disadvantage of the AAS technique is the non linearity of the calibration curves when absorbance becomes higher than 0.5 to 1. Detection limits (LOD) for flame AAS vary enormously: from 1 - 5 ppb (e.g. Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu) to more than 1000 ppb (e.g. P).

atomic absorption spectroscopy being founded analysis
 atomic absorption spectroscopy being founded analysis
ATP
 ATP

adenosine-triphosphate, the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell.

attenuation
 attenuation

attenuation in general means the reduction of a material flux, decreasing velocity of a process, the reduction of the strength of a signal or the act of thinning or weakening of any affects. The term attenuation is used in physics, in biology, microbiology, virology and in environmental sciences.

In physics/electronics it is used for the reduction of signal strength during transmission. Attenuation is the opposite of amplification, and is normal when a signal is sent from one point to another. Networks require repeaters at regular intervals to compensate attenuation. This kind of attenuation is measured in decibels.

Physical attenuation can be demonstrated by the following examples:

  • light attenuation in water with depths
  • transmission loss in fiber optics
  • light scattering
  • UV or IR absorption and selective absorption by different molecules and materials
  • attenuation of radio signals
  • seismic vawe attenuation, etc.

Attenuation in the biology and microbiology means mainly the thinning or weakening, such as the slowing down of the fermentation process of yeast cells paralel to the consumption of the substrates or the alteration of virulence of a pathogenic microorganism by passage through another host species, decreasing the virulence of the organism for the native host and increasing it for the new host. In gene trascription and expression attenuation means a self-regulating mechanism, resulting in the premature termination of the transcription.

In environmental management and engineering, attenuation is a process whereby the concentration of contaminants are managed, removed, or reduced by a risk reduction technology. Attenuation may be accomplished naturally under certain conditions due to dispersion, dilution, photodegradation, hídrolysis, biodegradation or the combination of all these natural processe.

Atterberg limits
 Atterberg limits

Atterberg limits are a basic measure of the nature of a fine-grained soil. Depending on the water content of the soil, it may appear in four states: solid, semi-solid, plastic and liquid. In each state the consistency and behavior of a soil is different and thus so are its engineering properties. Thus, the boundary between each state can be defined based on a change in the soil's behavior. The Atterberg limits can be used to distinguish between silt and clay, and it can distinguish between different types of silts and clays.

The shrinkage limit (SL) is the water content where further loss of moisture will not result in any more volume reduction. The test to determine the shrinkage limit is ASTM International D4943. The shrinkage limit is much less commonly used than the liquid limit and the plastic limit.

The plastic limit (PL) is the water content where soil starts to exhibit plastic behavior. A thread of soil is at its plastic limit when it is rolled to a diameter of 3 mm or begins to crumble. To improve consistency, a 3 mm diameter rod is often used to gauge the thickness of the thread when conducting the test. (AKA Soil Snake Test)

The liquid limit (LL) is the water content where a soil changes from plastic to liquid behavior. The original liquid limit test of Atterberg's involved mixing a pat of clay in a little round-bottomed porcelain bowl of 10-12cm diameter. A groove was cut through the pat of clay with a spatula, and the bowl was then struck many times against the palm of one hand.

Derived indexes:

The plasticity index (PI) is a measure of the plasticity of a soil. The plasticity index is the size of the range of water contents where the soil exhibits plastic properties. The PI is the difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit (PI = LL-PL). Soils with a high PI tend to be clay, those with a lower PI tend to be silt, and those with a PI of 0 tend to have little or no silt or clay.

The liquidity index (LI) is used for scaling the natural water content of a soil sample to the limits. It can be calculated as a ratio of difference between natural water content, plastic limit, and plasticity index: LI=(W-PL)/(LL-PL) where W is the natural water content.

The activity (A) of a soil is the PI divided by the percent of clay-sized particles(less than 0.075mm size) present. Different types of clays have different specific surface areas which controls how much wetting is required to move a soil from one phase to another such as across the liquid limit or the plastic limit. From the activity one can predict the dominant clay type present in a soil sample. High activity signifies large volume change when wetted and large shrinkage when dried. Soil with high activity are very reactive chemically.

Normally, activity of clay is between 0.75 and 1.25 and in this range, clay is called normal. It is assumed that the plasticity index is approximately equal to the clay fraction (A = 1). When A is less than 0.75, it is considered inactive. When it is greater than 1.25, it is considered active.

Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atterberg_limits

audible sound
 audible sound
authorisation of chemical substances, REACH
 authorisation of chemical substances, REACH

the REACH Regulation sets up a system under which the use of substances with properties of very high concern and their placing on the market can be made subject to an authorisation requirement. Such substances are included in Annex XIV of the Regulation, and may not be placed on the market or used without an authorisation.This authorisation requirement ensures that risks from the use of such substances are either adequately controlled or outweighed by socio-economic benefits. An analysis of alternative substances or technologies will be a fundamental component of the authorisation process. (Source: REACH Glossary)

autoclastit
 autoclastit
autoignition temperature
 autoignition temperature
called also as self-ignition temperature, a physico-chemical characteristic of the chemical substances, the lowest temperature at which a gas or a liquid will spontaneously ignite when mixed with air without any source of ignition. In case of solid substances, the lowest temperature at which certain amount of the substance will spontaneously ignite under specified test conditions. It is expressed in Celsius, Fahrenheit or Kelvin (°C, °F or K). According to REACH the data are used for safe handling and risk assessment. (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html) The study does not need to be conducted if the substance is explosive or ignites spontaneously with air at room temperature; or for liquids non flammable in air, e.g. no flash point up to 200°C; or for gases having no flammable range; or for solids, if the substance has a melting point < 160°C, or if preliminary results exclude self-heating of the substance up to 400°C.

autoimmune diseas
 autoimmune diseas

autoimmun response is a condition in which the immune system attacks tissues in its own body. This happens if the immune system gets signals telling it that the body tissue is an outside invader. This false signal causes several diseases, such as rheomatoid athritis, lung emphysema, allergies, etc.

The following list gives some of the autoimmune diseases:

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Addison's disease

Agammaglobulinemia

Alopecia areata

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antisynthetase syndrome

Atopic allergy

Atopic dermatitis

Autoimmune aplastic anemia

Autoimmune cardiomyopathy

Autoimmune enteropathy

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune inner ear disease

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy

Autoimmune pancreatitis

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome

Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis

Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

Autoimmune urticaria

Autoimmune uveitis

Balo disease/Balo concentric sclerosis

Behçet's disease

Berger's disease

Bickerstaff's encephalitis

Blau syndrome

Bullous pemphigoid

Cancer

Castleman's disease

Celiac disease

Chagas disease

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Churg-Strauss syndrome

Cicatricial pemphigoid

Cogan syndrome

Cold agglutinin disease

Complement component 2 deficiency

Contact dermatitis

Cranial arteritis

CREST syndrome

Crohn's disease (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD")

Cushing's Syndrome

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis

Dego's disease

Dercum's disease

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Dermatomyositis

Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

Dressler's syndrome

Drug-induced lupus

Discoid lupus erythematosus

Eczema

Endometriosis

Enthesitis-related arthritis[28]

Eosinophilic fasciitis

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

Erythema nodosum

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia

Evan's syndrome

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

Fibrosing alveolitis (or Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)

Gastritis

Gastrointestinal pemphigoid

Giant cell arteritis

Glomerulonephritis

Goodpasture's syndrome

Graves' disease

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)

Hashimoto's encephalopathy

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Herpes gestationis aka Gestational Pemphigoid

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hughes-Stovin syndrome

Hypogammaglobulinemia

Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (See Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura)

IgA nephropathy

Inclusion body myositis

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Interstitial cystitis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis aka Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Kawasaki's disease

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

Lichen planus

Lichen sclerosus

Linear IgA disease (LAD)

Lou Gehrig's disease (Also Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)

Lupoid hepatitis aka Autoimmune hepatitis

Lupus erythematosus

Majeed syndrome

Ménière's disease

Microscopic polyangiitis

Miller-Fisher syndrome see Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Mixed connective tissue disease

Morphea

Mucha-Habermann disease aka Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta

Multiple sclerosis

Myasthenia gravis

Myositis

Narcolepsy[46][47]

Neuromyelitis optica (also Devic's disease)

Neuromyotonia

Occular cicatricial pemphigoid

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome

Ord's thyroiditis

Palindromic rheumatism

PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus)

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

Parry Romberg syndrome

Parsonage-Turner syndrome

Pars planitis

Pemphigus vulgaris

Pernicious anaemia

Perivenous encephalomyelitis

POEMS syndrome

Polyarteritis nodosa

Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyositis

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Progressive inflammatory neuropathy

Psoriasis

Psoriatic arthritis

Pyoderma gangrenosum

Pure red cell aplasia

Rasmussen's encephalitis

Raynaud phenomenon

Relapsing polychondritis

Reiter's syndrome

Restless leg syndrome

Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatic fever

Sarcoidosis

Schizophrenia

Schmidt syndrome another form of APS

Schnitzler syndrome

Scleritis

Scleroderma

Serum Sickness

Sjögren's syndrome

Spondyloarthropathy

Still's disease see Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Stiff person syndrome

Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)

Susac's syndrome

Sweet's syndrome

Sydenham chorea see PANDAS

Sympathetic ophthalmia

Systemic lupus erythematosis see Lupus erythematosis

Takayasu's arteritis

Temporal arteritis (also known as "giant cell arteritis")

Thrombocytopenia

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Transverse myelitis

Ulcerative colitis (one of two types of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease "IBD")

Undifferentiated connective tissue disease different from Mixed connective tissue disease

Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy

Urticarial vasculitis

Vasculitis

Vitiligo

Wegener's granulomatosis

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmune_disease

availability
 availability
available groundwater resources
 available groundwater resources
axiom
 axiom

an axiom is a mathematical rule. This basic assumption about a system allows theorems to be developed. For example, the system could be the points and lines in the plane. Then an axiom would be that given any two distinct points in the plane, there is a unique line through them.

axon
 axon

an axon (also known as a nerve fiber) is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell (neuron), that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body.

In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), the impulse travels along an axon from the periphery to the cell body, and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon. Axon dysfunction causes many inherited and acquired neurological disorders which can affect both the peripheral and central neurons.

axonopathy
 axonopathy

an inherited, degenerative disorder of the peripheral and central nervous system or a disorder caused by neurotoxins.

Azomonas agilis
 Azomonas agilis
azonosítani!!!
 azonosítani!!!
államigazgatási (közhatalmi) jogkörben okozott kárért fennálló felelősség (Ptk.
 államigazgatási (közhatalmi) jogkörben okozott kárért fennálló felelősség (Ptk.
államigazgatási ügy
 államigazgatási ügy
backfilling
 backfilling
background concentration
 background concentration

an average or expected concentration of a substance in a specific environment, or typical concentrations of substances that occur naturally in an environment.

background contamination in air
 background contamination in air

an average or expected imission in the environment of an air polluting source.

bacterial gene expression regulation
 bacterial gene expression regulation

bacteria usually control gene expression by regulating the level of mRNA transcription. In bacteria, genes with related function are generally located adjacent to each other and they are regulated co-ordinately . Coordinate regulation of clustered genes is accomplished by regulating the production of a polycistronic mRNA (a large mRNA containing the information for several genes). Thus, bacteria are able to "sense" their environment and express the appropriate set of genes needed for that environment by regulating transcription of those genes.

bactericides
 bactericides

Bactericides are substances that kill bacteria. Bactericides are either disinfectants, antiseptics or antibiotics. Bactericides are widely used in human and animal therapy, in agriculture (plant pesticides) and in different industries for killing harmful bacteria.

bacteristatic agents
 bacteristatic agents

bacterostatic agent or shotly bacteriostat is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily harming them otherwise.

Depending on their application, bacteriostatic antibiotics, disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives can be distinguished. Upon removal of the bacteriostat, the bacteria usually start to grow again. This is in contrast to bactericides, which kill bacteria.

bacterium
 bacterium
BAF
 BAF

BioAccumulation Factor is the ratio between concentration in an organism or in a part or organ of an organism, and exposure level, = environmental concentration. It is also called Bioconcentration Factor, BCF.

bar
 bar

unit of pressure. Normal atmospheric pressure 1 atmosphere = 1.013 bar (= 1013 mbar).

barrel
 barrel

a barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of vertical wooden staves and bound by wooden or metal hoops.

Barrel is also one of several units of volume, with dry barrels, fluid barrels (UK beer barrel, U.S. beer barrel), oil barrel, etc. The conversion to other units of volume:

barrels, US beer gallons 31
barrels, US beer liters 117.347 77
barrels, US petroleum gallons (British) 34.97
barrels, US petroleum gallons (US) 42
barrels, US petroleum liters 158.987 29
barrels, US proof spirits gallons 40
barrels, US proof spirits liters 151.416 47
base noise
 base noise
base rock
 base rock
base-catalysed dechlorination
 base-catalysed dechlorination
Basel Convention
 Basel Convention

adopted in 1989 and entered into force on 5 May 1992. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal aims to minimise the generation of hazardous wastes and control their movement.

basic research
 basic research
basis air pollution
 basis air pollution
BATNEEC
 BATNEEC

Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Cost.

battery
 battery

An electrical battery consists of one or more electrochemical cells, which are able to convert the chemical energy stored in the battery into electrical energy. The cell was developed by Alessandro Volta, in 1800. Today, the battery is a common power source for households, industries and toys.

Batteries may be used once and discarded, or recharged for years as in standby power applications. Miniature cells are used to power devices such as wristwatches and portable electronic devices; larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers, for cars and other vehicles, incuding electric cars.

The 2006/66/EC European Directive (see the Summary of EU waste Legislation on Batteries and Accumulators) aims at minimising the negative impacts of batteries and accumulators on the environment. The Directive introduces measures to prohibit the marketing of some batteries containing hazardous substances. The Directive contains measures for establishing schemes aiming at high level of collection and recycling of batteries with quantified collection and recycling targets.

battery-electric vehicles (BEV)
 battery-electric vehicles (BEV)

BEVs store electricity in batteries and draw power from the batteries to run an electric motor that drives the vehicle. So long as the ultimat electricity source is clean, the BEV system can reduce emissions significantly compared with an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) run on a liquid fuel. Indeed, BEVs using WWS power would be completely zero-emission vehicles. Moreover, BEVs get about 5 times more work (in miles of travel) per unit of input energy than do ICEVs (mi/kWh-outlet versus mi/kWh-gasoline). BEVs have existed for decades in small levels of production, and today most major automobile companies are developing BEVs. The latest generation of vehicles uses lithium-ion batteries, which do not use the toxic chemicals associated with lead-acid or the nickel-cadmium batteries (1).

Vehicles using both electric motors and internal combustion engines are examples of hybrid electric vehicles, and are not considered pure (or all) EVs because they operate in a charge-sustaining mode.

  • Regular hybrid electric vehicles cannot be externally charged.
  • Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally to displace some or all of their internal combustion engine power and gasoline fuel are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and are BEVs during their charge-depleting mode.

All-electric and plug-in hybrids are off-vehicle charge capable. (“OVCC” or pluginable), which means their batteries can be charged from an off-vehicle electric energy source that cannot be connected or coupled to the vehicle while the vehicle is being driven (2)

Sources:

(1) Mark Z. Jacobson and Mark A. Delucchi: Evaluating the Feasibility of a Large-Scale Wind, Water, and Sun Energy Infrastructure

(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_electric_vehicle

benchmark dose (BMD
 benchmark dose (BMD

the BMD concept involves fitting a mathematical model to dose-response data. The BMD is defined as the dose causing a predetermined change in response.

Source: REACH

Benchmark Dose (BMD), REACH
 Benchmark Dose (BMD), REACH

the BMD concept involves fitting a mathematical model to dose-response data. The BMD is defined as the dose causing a predetermined change in response.
The BMD10 Benchmark-dose associated with a 10% response (for tumours upon lifetime exposure after correction for spontaneous incidence, for other effects in a specified study.
The BMDL10 is the lower 95% confidence interval of a Benchmark-dose representing a 10% response (e.g., tumour response upon lifetime exposure), i.e. the lower 95% confidence interval of a BMD10. (Source: REACH Glossary)

benthos
 benthos

benthos is the community of organisms which live in the bed sediment of freshwater or the sea, in the so called benthic zone.

The size of living organisms may vary largely, some of them are microorganisms, not or hardfly visible by naked eyes, these constitute microbenthos. The bigger ones belong to the mezo or macrobenthos.

Benthic community of freshwater and the sea are significantly different.

Light does not penetrate very deep waters, that is why the energy source for deep benthic ecosystems is often organic matter from higher up in the water column which drifts down to the depths. This dead and decaying matter sustains the benthic food chain; most organisms in the benthic zone are scavengers or detritivores.

See also zoobenthos.

bentic community
 bentic community

community of sediment dwelling organisms, named also benthos.

benzene
 benzene

a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It belongs to hydrocarbons, the simplest representative of aromatics with chemical formula of C6H6. Its boiling temperature is 80,5 °C, melting temperature 6 °C, specific gravity 0.880 g/cm3 at 20 °C. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. Natural sources of benzene include emissions from volcanoes and forest fires. benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.benzene is widely used to make other chemicals which are applied to make plastics, resins, and nylon and other synthetic fibers. benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. It breaks down slowly in water and soil, and can pass through the soil into underground water. benzene does not build up in plants or animals. Breathing very high levels of benzene can result in death, while high levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. Eating or drinking foods containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, irritation of the stomach, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid heart rate, and death. The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells leading to anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection. Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia, often referred to as AML. This is a cancer of the bloodforming organs. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) in the USA has determined that benzene is a known carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have determined that benzene is carcinogenic to humans. (Source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Deseas Registry, ATSDR, www.atsdr.cdc.gov)

benzene and
 benzene and

benzene, or benzol, is an aromatic ring with the molecular formula C6H6. benzene is a colorless and flammable liquid with a strong smell and a relatively high melting point. Because it is a known carcinogen, its use as in gasoline is now limited, but it is an important industrialsolvent and precursor in the production of drugs and plastics. benzene is a natural constituent of mineral oil.

Alkylbenzenes are organic compounds that has an alkyl group bound to a benzene ring. Two well known alkylbenzenes are methylbenzene and toluene, both are colorless flammable liquids obtained from petroleum or coal tar, used as a solvent for gums and lacquers and in high-octane fuels. See also BTEX.

benzo[a]pyrene
 benzo[a]pyrene
BEPs
 BEPs

Best Environmental Practices (BEPs), the application of the most appropriate combination of environmental control measures or strategies in order to reduce the impact of specific substances or applications.

bespoke biochar
 bespoke biochar

Biochar can be described as bespoke if it has been produced under conditions optimised toward delivery of a particular function in soil, such as biological stability, maximum agronomic benefit, mitigation of trace gas emission, etc., or any combination of the same.

(Reference: Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

Best Available Technology
 Best Available Technology
Best Available Technology (BAT)
 Best Available Technology (BAT)
Best Practicable Environmental Option
 Best Practicable Environmental Option
Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO)
 Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO)

the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) (Twelfth Report, FEB 1988, Cm 310), is a set of procedures adopted by Great Britain with the goal of managing waste and other environmental concerns. According to the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, BPEO "emphasises the protection and conservation of the environment across land, air and water. The BPEO procedure establishes for a given set of objectives, the option that provides the most benefits or the least damage to the environment, as a whole, at acceptable cost, in the long term as well as in the short term."
(Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Best_practicable_environmental_option)

best practice
 best practice
bias
 bias

systematic error manifested as a consistent positive or negative deviation from the know or true value. It differs from random error that shows a random deviation from run or true value.

A bias of a measurement or a sampling procedure may pose a more serious problem for researcher than random errors because it cannot be reduced by mere increase in sample size and averaging the outcomes.

billion
 billion

one thousand million (in the U.S.). 1,000,000,000=109.

bio-indicators
 bio-indicators

a microbial, plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. The specific chemical, biochemical or genetical characteristic or molecule of these species can also function and bio-indicator. These bio-indicators can be used as measured endpoints in ecological surveys or ecotoxicological test methods.

bioaccessibility
 bioaccessibility
bioaccumulation
 bioaccumulation
bioaccumulative substance
 bioaccumulative substance

Bioaccumulative and very bioaccumulative substances are those, which are able to concentrate in the body of living organisms of microbial cells, plants or animals, including man. Bioconcentration is measured related to the environment and is quantitatively characterized by the BCF = bioconcentration factos, which is the ratio of two concentrations, the concentration in the organism or organ and the concentration in the environmental compartment.

BCF Plant = Cplant/ Csoil, or BCF Fish is Cfish/Cwater. Bioaccumulation of certain substances, e.g. hydrofobic organic substances in liver of adipose tissue or inorganic substances such as toxic metals Pb, Cd, or mercury in plant shoot and leaves leads to the toxication of the food-chain and biomagnification along the food-chain.

According to REACH regulation a substance fulfils the bioaccumulative criterion when:
– the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is higher than 2 000.
The assessment of bioaccumulation - according to REACH methodology - shall be based on measured data on bioconcentration in aquatic species. Data from freshwater as well as marine water species can be used. This kind of aquatic bioconcentration of the substances serves as basis to declare a substance PBT (Bioaccumulative, Persistent and Toxic), which is a priority risk category of REACH.

bioavailability
 bioavailability
biochar
 biochar

biochar is a black colored, solid material obtained from thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen limited environment.

Biochar characteristics: for the purposes of biochar quality standards, biochar characteristics are those physical or chemical properties of biochar that affect the following uses for biochar:

1) biochar that is added to soils with the intention to improve soil functions; and

2) biochar that is produced in order to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise naturally degrade to GHG, by converting a portion of that biomass into a stable carbon fraction that has carbon sequestration value.

Definitions of IBI (2012): http://www.biochar-international.org/sites/default/files/IBI_Biochar_Standards_V1.1.pdf

biochar (according to International Biochar Initiative)
 biochar (according to International Biochar Initiative)

Biochar, according to IBI (International Biochar Initiative) is the porous carbonaceous solid produced by thermochemical conversion of organic materials in an oxygen depleted atmosphere which has physiochemical properties suitable for the safe and long-term storage of carbon in the environment and, potentially, soil improvement. There are other definitions both more and less specific.

(
Reference: Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

biochar characteristics
 biochar characteristics

biochar characteristics are those physical or chemical roperties of biochar that affect the following uses for biochar:

1) biochar that is added to soils with the intention to improve soil functions; and

2) biochar that is produced in order to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise naturally degrade to GHG, by converting a portion of that biomass into a stable carbon fraction that has carbon sequestration value.

Definition from IBI (2012).

biochar feedstock
 biochar feedstock

the material undergoing the thermochemical process to create biochar. Feedstock material for biochar consists of biological material, but may also contain diluents (definition of IBI, 2012).

Feedstock of biochar production maybe processed or unprocessed.

Unprocessed feedstock is biomass from the plant kingdom (or other non-animal taxa such as fungi and algae), grown in a clean, uncontaminated environment, that may have gone through mechanical processing to change its physical properties (e.g., particle size), but has not gone through chemical processing or treatment, or biological processing (e.g., digestion). (Definition of IBI, 2012). Some unprocessed feedstock types:

  • Rice hulls & straw
  • Non-maize cereal straws & switchgrass
  • Maize cobs & stover
  • Sugar cane bagasse & trash
  • Softwoods (conifers)
  • Hardwoods (angiosperms)
  • Bamboo
  • Miscanthus

Processed feedstock is biomass that has gone through chemical processing (for example, paper pulp sludge) or biological processing (for example, digestion, such as manures and sludge from waste effluent treatment) beyond simple mechanical processing to modify physical properties. Because animals may bioaccumulate toxicants in their tissues, all animal parts and products are considered to be Processed Feedstocks for purposes of these guidelines. Any biomass material that may have been grown on soils conntaminated with heavy metals or other toxicants will also be considered a Processed Feedstock for purposes of these guidelines. (Definition of IBI, 2012)

Some processed feedstock types:

  • Cattle manure
  • Pig manure
  • Chicken manure
  • Sheep manure
  • Horse manure
  • Paper mill sludge
  • Sewage sludge
  • Distillers grain
  • Anaerobic digester sludge
  • Biomass fraction of MSW
  • Food industry waste
biochar organic carbon
 biochar organic carbon

biochar organic carbon is the biologically degradable carbon-containing compounds found in the organic fraction of biochar feedstocks. Biochar feedstocks can contain such compounds as sugars, starches, proteins, fats, cellulose, and lignocellulose, which are thermochemically degradable. Other organic carbon forms can include petroleum and petroleum by-products such as plastics and contaminated oils, which are, for the purposes of this document, included within the definition of contaminants, but may also be thermochemically degraded. The organic carbon fraction does not include inorganic carbonate concretions such as calcium and magnesium carbonates (Definition of US Composting Council and US Department of Agriculture, 2001).

biochar porosity
 biochar porosity

The volume of pores or interstices in a biochar, as a proportion of the total volume. Since porous materials tend to show inconsistency and non-uniformity in the diameter of their pores or their number per unit volume, there are many functional measures of porosity such as connectivity and neck diameter, and pore-size distribution rather than mean pore diameter. Categorisation of pores into ‘large’ (macro), ‘medium’ (meso) and ‘small’ (micro) is context specific: in material science their minimum diameters are <2 nm, 2–50 nm, >50 nm whereas in soil science functionality may be considered at scales relevant to the microbial cell (approximately 1 µm diameter).

(Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

Biochar specific surface area
 Biochar specific surface area

Material property of solids reflecting total surface area per unit mass or bulk volume, and of importance to adsorption and surface reactions. It is typically derived experimentally by adsorption, a method referred to as BET (initials of the inventors). This accounts for area of fine structure surfaces and deep texture, but results differ markedly depending on the substance adsorbed, which is typically nitrogen gas.

(Reference:Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

biochar stability
 biochar stability

Biochar comprises stabilised plant material in which carbon is stored mainly in a highly recalcitrant chemical form. Although little research has been published on the long-term stability of biochar, studies suggest a mean residence time (MRT) for charcoal in soil in the order of millennia, compared to 50 y for bulk soil organic matter. By analogy to charcoal, biochar could provide an effective long-term store of carbon in soil, and thus provide an abatement option for anthropogenic carbon emissions. As yet, there is no agreed-upon methodology for calculating the long-term stability of biochar. This is a major weakness in the case for carbon storage in biochar since re-return of carbon as CO2 into the atmosphere on too short a timescale could exacerbate, rather than alleviate, climate change. Nevertheless, there are gounds for believing that a focused research effort over the next five years should be able to make rapid progress on development of methods for determining the longevity of carbon storage in biochar.

(Reference: Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

biochemical indicators
 biochemical indicators
Biocides Directive 98/8/EC
 Biocides Directive 98/8/EC

Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the placing on the market of biocidal products was adopted in 1998. According to the Directive, Member States had to transpose the rules before 14 May 2000 into national law.

The Commission adopted the original proposal for the Directive in 1993. Directive 91/414/EEC on plant protection products, adopted in 1991, served as a model for the new Directive.

The Biocidal Product Directive aims to harmonise the European market for biocidal products and their active substances. At the same time it aims to provide a high level of protection for humans, animals and the environment.

biocides, REACH
 biocides, REACH

biocides are defined in Article 2 (1) of the Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC) as:
"Active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, put up in the form in which they are supplied to the user, intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, prevent the action of, or otherwise exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means."
Note, however, that many substances or preparations which meet this definition are excluded from the Biocidal Products Directive on the basis of being covered by other legislation such as the Plant Protection Products Directive (91/414/EEC) and many other Directives relating to veterinary medicines, proprietary medicinal products etc. Therefore, for a complete definition of a biocidal products you should consult the Biocidal Products Directive and its associated guidance.
In general terms, the scope of the Biocidal Products Directive is very wide, covering 23 different product types. This includes disinfectants for home and industrial use, preservatives for manufactured and natural products, non-agricultural pesticides for use against insects, rodents and other vertebrates and specialised products such as embalming/taxidermist fluids and antifouling products. A full list of product types is in Annex V of the BPD.
Under Article 15 (2) of the REACH Regulation, active substances which are regulated as biocides are regarded as being already registered under REACH.
Directive 98/8/EC, Articles 1 and 2.; REACH Article 15 (2).

biocoenosis
 biocoenosis
bioconcentration
 bioconcentration
Bioconcentration Factor
 Bioconcentration Factor
BioConcentration Factor (BCF)
 BioConcentration Factor (BCF)

a bioconcentration%20Factor" target="_blank">bioconcentration Factor (L/kg) can either be expressed as the ratio of the concentration of a substance in an organism to the concentration in water once a steady state has been achieved (static BCF), or, on a non-equillibrium basis, as the quotient of the uptake and depuration rate constants (dynamic BCF). Static and dynamic BCFs can be equally used for regulatory purposes. The parameter gives an indication of the accumulation potential of a substance. (Source: REACH Glossary)

bioconversion
 bioconversion
biodegradability
 biodegradability
biodegradable polimers
 biodegradable polimers
biodegradable waste
 biodegradable waste

biodegradable waste is any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as food and garden waste, and paper and paperboard

Source: Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31999L0031:EN:HTML

biodegradation
 biodegradation

decomposition or breakdown of a substance through the action of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi.

biodegradation in soil
 biodegradation in soil

Decomposers of organic matter are found in the soils. These groups of living organismsm perform different functions:

• Microflora: certain types of bacteria and fungi are the major or primary decomposers; they are capable of digesting complex organic matter and transforming it into simpler substances that can be utilised by other organisms;

• Microfauna: certain types of protozoa and nematodes feed on or assimilate microbial tissues and excrete mineral nutrients;

• Mesofauna: includes a large number of organisms, ranging from small arthropods like mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) to potworms (Enchytraeidae). They break up plant detritus, ingest soil and organic matter or feed on primary decomposers thereby having a large influence on regulating the composition and activity of soil communities;

• Macrofauna: including ants, termites, millipedes and earthworms, contribute to organic matter decomposition by breaking up plant detritus and moving it down into the soil system thereby improving the availability of resources to microflora (through their nest building and foraging activities).

biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil
 biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil
biodiversity
 biodiversity

also called biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level. Loss of biodiversity − one of the global environmnatel problems − reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook

bioengineering
 bioengineering
bioethanol
 bioethanol
bioflavonoids
 bioflavonoids

flavonoids (or bioflavonoids), also collectively known as Vitamin P and citrin, are a class of plant secondary metabolites.

They show anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity.

Flavonoids (both flavonols and flavanols) are most commonly known for their antioxidant activity in vitro. Their in vivo effect has not been proven yet, but the degradation of vitamin C can be hindered by flavonoids.

Flavonoids could also induce mechanisms that help kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor invasion.

Bioflavonoids like rutin, monoxerutin, diosmin, troxerutin and hidrosmin have vasoprotective proprieties.

biogas
 biogas
biogenic
 biogenic

material derived from living organisms. biogenic elements are the elements in the living organisms: C, H, O, N, S and P. biogenic amines are the biologically active amines of biological origin.

bioleaching
 bioleaching

bioleaching is a type of leaching where the extraction of metal from solid minerals into a solution is facilitated by the metabolism of certain microbes - bioleaching microbes. Bioleaching is a process described as "the use of microorganisms to transform elements so that the elements can be extracted from a material when water is filtered trough it".

Source: BioMineWiki: http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/index.php/Bioleaching

bioleaching based technology
 bioleaching based technology
biological immobilisation/stabilisation
 biological immobilisation/stabilisation
biological materila
 biological materila

material derived from, or produced by, living or recently living organisms.This material can be ”unprocessed” or ”processed”.

Unprocessed biological material is living material, or recently living material from the plant kingdom (or other non-animal taxa such as fungi or algae) that may have been mechanically resized (such as wood chips), but has not been processed in an animal’s body or gone through an anthropogenic chemical modification.

Processed biological material is recently living material that has been chemically modified by anthropogenic or biological processes (e.g., paper sludge, manure). All animal products, including bones, offal, food-waste containing animal products, and animal manures are considered to be processed biological material.

Definition of IBI (2012)

biological pest control in organic farming
 biological pest control in organic farming

biological pest control in the organic agriculture is mainly against arthropods (e.g. insects, mites) and nematodes, as well as fungi and bacteria.

Insect pests are a common problem, and insecticides, both non-organic and organic, are controversial due to their environmental and health effects. One way to manage insects is to ignore them and focus on plant health, since plants can survive the loss of about a third of leaf area before suffering severe growth consequences.

To avoid using insecticides, one can select naturally resistant plants, put bags around the plants, remove dying material such as leaves, fruit, and diseased plants, cover plants with a solid barrier ("row cover"), wash them, encourage and release beneficial organisms and beneficial insects, plant companion plants and polycultures, install traps such as sticky cards (which can also be used to assess insect prevalence), and season extension. Biological pest control uses natural predators. Recommended beneficial insects include minute pirate bugs, big-eyed bugs, and to a lesser extent ladybugs (which tend to fly away), all of which eat a wide range of pests. Lacewings are also effective, but tend to fly away. Praying mantis tend to move more slowly and eat less heavily. Parasitoid wasps tend to be effective for their selected prey, but like all small insects can be less effective outdoors because the wind controls their movement. Predatory mites are effective for controlling other mites.

Several pesticides approved for organic use, such as spinosad and neem, have been called green pesticides. The main organic insecticides used in the US are Bt (a bacterial toxin) and pyrethrum. Surveys have found that fewer than 10% of organic farmers use these pesticides regularly. Nicotine sulfate may also be used although it is extremely toxic, but breaks down quickly. Less toxic but still effective organic insecticides include neem, spinosad, soaps, garlic, citrus oil, capsaicin (repellent), Bacillus popillae, Beauvaria bassiana, and boric acid. Pesticides should be rotated to minimize pest resistance.

The first disease control strategy involves cleaning the area by removing diseased and dying plants and ensure that the plants are healthy by maintaining water and fertilization.

Compost tea can be effective, but there is concern over whether these are ineffective or even harmful when made incorrectly.

Polyculture and crop rotation reduce the ability of disease to spread. Disease-resistant cultivars can be purchased.

Organic fungicides include the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Trichoderma harzianum which are mainly effective for diseases affecting roots.

Bordeaux mixture contains copper, which can be used as an organic fungicide in various forms. Sulfur is effective against fungus as well as some insects.Lime sulfur is also available, but can damage plants if used incorrectly. Potassium and sodium bicarbonate are also effective against fungus.

Agricultural Research Service scientists have found that caprylic acid, a naturally-occurring fatty acid in milk and coconuts, as well as other natural plant extracts have antimicrobial characteristics that can help.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_farming

biological plant protection
 biological plant protection
biological sewage purufication
 biological sewage purufication
biological soil tretament in slurry phase reactor
 biological soil tretament in slurry phase reactor
biological treatment in slurry reactor
 biological treatment in slurry reactor
biological uptake
 biological uptake

the transfer of substances from the environment to microorganisms, plants, animals, and humans.

biological waste-water treatment
 biological waste-water treatment

biological methods of wastewater treatment aim the biodegradation of the organic and inorganic pollutants in the waste water or the elimination ot these by other biological processes. The biodegradable organic material content of the waste waters is expressed as BOD (Biological Oxigene Demand) which is too high to let the waste-water into living surface waters. That is why we can say, that the aim of biological waste-water treatment is to reduce the BOD content in the waste-waters before their discharge into surface waters. Wastewaters enter the treatment plant with a BOD higher than 200 mg/L, but primary settling has already reduced it to about 150 mg/L by the time it enters the biological component of the technology. It needs to exit with a BOD content no higher than about 20−30 mg/L, so that after dilution in the nearby receiving water body (river, lake), the BOD is less than 2−3 mg/L.

Main principle of biological waste-water treatment is that bacterial cells use the organic material present in the wastewater as substrates for energy production (respiration, mineralisation) accompanied with CO2 and NH3 production. Part of the organic and inorganic constituents of the waste-water is used for the biosynthesis of the same microbes; through their metabolism, the organic material is transformed into cellular mass, which is no longer in solution but can be precipitated at the bottom of a settling tank or retained as slime on solid surfaces or vegetation in the system. The outflow of water becomes much clearer than it was, when entered.

The bioengineer ensures the optimal conditionss for the microorganisms to be able to work most efficiently. A key factor is the operation of an aerobic biological system is an adequate supply of oxygen. Indeed, cells need not only organic material as food but also oxygen to breathe. Without an adequate supply of oxygen, the biological degradation of the waste is slowed down, thereby requiring a longer residency time of the water in the treatment technology.

Biological treatment, is also called secondary waste-water treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biologically degradable or modifiable content of the sewage which are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent, in some cases industrial wastes. The majority of municipal plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. The bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain carbon molecules, etc.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Flocs consists of living and dead microbes, slime and sorbed, non.degradable pollutants and waste material. The flocs can be sedimented or otherwise separated from the water phase. Some pollutants are concentrated in the waste-water sludge; part of them are able to be slowly degraded, but an other part is persistent (metals, persistent organic substances). These persistent contaminants in waste-water sludges makes the unlimited utilisation of the sludge impossibel.

Biological waste-water treatment systems are classified as fixed-film or suspended-growth systems. Fixed-film or attached growth systems include trickling filters and rotating biological contactors, where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface. Suspended-growth systems include activated sludge, where the biomass is mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed-film systems that treat the same amount of water. However, fixed-film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems (Wikipedia).

The most well-known biologica waste-water treatment technologies are the following:
- Activated sludge treatmen
- Surface-aerated basins (Lagoons)
- Filter beds (oxidizing beds)
- Soil Bio-Technology
- Biological aerated filters
- Rotating biological contactors
- Membrane bioreactors
- Secondary sedimentation
- Lagooning
- Constructed wetlands
- Nitrogen removal
- Phosphorus removal

Technologies for the treatment of the waste-water sludge
- Anaerobic digestion
- Aerobic digestion
- Composting
- Incineration
- Sludge disposal

biological weathering
 biological weathering

living organisms contribute to the weathering process in many ways.

Trees put down roots through joints or cracks in the rock in order to find moisture. As the tree grows, the roots gradually prize the rock apart.

Even the tiniest bacteria, algae and lichens produce chemicals that help break down the rock on which they live, so they can get the nutrients they need.

Many animals, such as these Piddock shells, bore into rocks for protection either by scraping away the grains or secreting acid to dissolve the rock.
Source: http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/education/resources/rockcycle/page3568.html

biomagnification
 biomagnification
biomarker
 biomarker

biomarkers of adverse effects are defined as any measurable biochemical, physiologic, or other alteration within an organism that, depending on magnitude, can be recognized as an established or potential health impairment or disease (NAS/NRC 1989). This definition encompasses biochemical or cellular signals of tissue dysfunction (e.g., increased liver enzyme activity or pathologic changes in female genital epithelial cells), as well as physiologic signs of dysfunction such as increased blood pressure or decreased lung capacity. Note that these markers are often not substance specific. They also may not be directly adverse, but can indicate potential health impairment (e.g., DNA adducts).

Source: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp140.pdf

biomarkers
 biomarkers

differentiation between biomarkers for exposures and adverse effects is done here and separately discussed the markers used for assessing and proving exposure and other ones for assessing the response of and organism or organ.

A biomarker of exposure is a xenobiotic substance or its metabolite(s) or the product of an interaction between a agent and some target molecule or cell that is measured within a compartment of an organism (NAS/NRC 1989). The preferred biomarkers of exposure are generally the substance itself or substance-specific metabolites in readily obtainable body fluid or excreta. However, several factors can confound the use and interpretation of biomarkers of exposure. The body burden of a substance may be the result of exposures from more than one source. The substance being measured may be a metabolite of another xenobiotic (e.g., high urinary levels of phenol can result from exposure to several different aromatic compounds. Depending on the properties of the substance (e.g., biologic half-life)and environmental conditions (e.g., duration and route of exposure), the substance and all of its metabolites may have been eliminated from the body by the time biologic samples can be taken. It may be difficult to identify individuals exposed to hazardous substances that are commonly found in body tissues and fluids (e.g., essential mineral nutrients such as copper, zinc and selenium).

Biomarkers of effect are defined as any measurable biochemical,physiologic, or other alteration within an organism that, depending on magnitude, can be recognized as an established or potential health impairment or disease (NAS/NRC 1989). This definition encompasses biochemical or cellular signals of tissue dysfunction (e.g., increased liver enzyme activity or pathologic changes in female genital epithelial cells), as well as physiologic signs of dysfunction such as increased blood pressure or decreased lung capacity. Note that these markers are often not substance specific. They also may not be directly adverse,but can indicate potential health impairment (e.g., DNA adducts).

biomass
 biomass

in general sense biomass is the mass of material built into living organisms.

In bioengineering biomass is the mass of living cells or tissues growing during the propagation or fermentation process by utilising nutrients.

In agriculture the useful mass of the plants: green leaves, wood, plant products, such as fruits, seeds, etc.

In the moders environmnetal sciences we use the term biomnass in connection with renewable energy sources: the biological material from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. For example, forest residues, yard clippings and wood chips may be used as biomass for energy production. However, biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemical substances.

The definition of European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development from 2010 differs in some extent, saying: "biomass is the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues of biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry, and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste (including municipal solid waste).

biomining
 biomining

biomining is mining based on bioleaching.

Bioleaching is a preparatory step to metal recovery. In subsequent processes, different from bioleaching, the metal is recovered from the leachate. Bacterial oxidation such as bioleaching or biooxidation on a commercial scale has been done on sulfide metal bearing materials such as arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, covellite and chalcocite ores and concentrates, the one exception to this processing being the oxidation of chalcopyrite ores and concentrates.

Gold and copper are the dominating valuable metals that are commercially extracted:

  • Copper from low-grade secondary copper sulfide ores by heap bioleaching.
  • Gold from refractory gold concentrates by stirred tank leaching as a pretreatment step. The biooxidation residue is further treated by cyanide leaching to recover gold.
  • Co is also commercially extracted. Ni and Zn may become so in the future.

Heap leaching is the most common method for bioleaching and is mainly used for secondary copper ores. Stirred tank leaching is used for refractory gold concentrates where gold is locked into the pyrite/arsenopyrite matrix. As the microbes do not necessarily need to contact the valuable metal-bearing material that is bioleached, they can be physically separated from it:

  • Direct bioleaching. The microbes are kept together with the valuable metal-bearing material
  • Indirect bioleaching. The microbes are kept in a pond external to the valuable metal-bearing material and provide the leaching chemicals at a distance.

Bioleaching involves abiotic and biotic reactions, often with different physicochemical requirements. Indirect bioleaching is a way of satisfying the requirements independently by separating the biotic and abiotic reactions. In direct bioleaching the challenge is to select microbes whose living conditions are as close to the optimal conditions of the abiotic leaching reactions as possible.

Advantages of biomining:

  • Ores and concentrates of lower metal concentration can be treated economically. Therefore the concentrating process can stop earlier, before the concentrate is sent for leaching. This means that loss of metal value during concentration is avoided.
  • "Difficult" - refractory - concentrates can be processed.
  • Concentrates with contaminants like arsenic, bismuth and magnesia are often expensive to treat in conventional metal-production. Mining companies often have to pay penalties for these difficult-to-treat contaminants when they sell concentrate to a smelter.
  • The arsenic in the concentrates can be removed in an environmentally stable form.
  • Possible to make use of existing SX/EW plant capacaties once the oxidic ore cap has been mined out.
  • Economic exploitation of smaller deposits, in remote locations, becomes viable because of reduced infrastructural costs.
  • Rapid start-up. Easy and reliable process when it comes to maintenance.
  • The process takes place at atmospheric pressure and low temperatures.
  • Water-based process means less dust.
  • No emissions of sulfur dioxide. Therefore, purification of smoke gas and sulfuric acid plants are superfluous.

Despite the advantages with bioleaching it is not always easy to choose among the different methods of metal extraction in order to explore a potential mine. The Techno-Economic factors of a resource need to be evaluated from case to case.

A list of Biomining Plants are given here: http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/index.php/List_of_bioleaching_or_biooxidation_plants

Source: BioMineWiki: http://wiki.biomine.skelleftea.se/wiki/index.php/Bioleaching

biomonitoring
 biomonitoring
biopesticides
 biopesticides
biopolimers
 biopolimers
biorefinery
 biorefinery

biorefinery is a complex plant that integrates biomass conversion processes and technologies to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. The term biorefinery is analogous to petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum.

Biorefining is the processing of biomass into a wide range of bio-based products, such as food, feed, chemicals, materials and bioenergy, including biofuels, power and/or heat.

Fully equipped biorefineries − similar to ptroleum refineries − do not exist yet, but combined heat and power (CHP) technologies generating electricity and process heat for smaller communities are more and more widespread in Europe (1).

The biomass to be converted into heat, energy, fuel or materials can be of plant or microbial as well as organic waste origin. There are many individual ‘enabling technologies’ behind a biorefinery process. These include mechanical pretreatment, heat treatment, chemical/enzymatic cell wall degradation, fermentation, isolation/purification, conversion etc.

The total chain of processing events is always tailor-made and optimized for a given biomass source and the applications aimed at. For unicellular organisms like algae, the first steps in the total biorefinery process differ strongly from that for plant-based material. Instead of mechanical harvesting and pretreatment of the crude plant material, efficient isolation of dispersed cells from the production medium is required. No lignin or hemicellulose is present, but many algae have cell walls that need to be broken down to allow efficient isolation of compounds of interest. In the later stages where individual compounds are isolated and converted, processes are more similar.

In case of an algal biomass biorefinery technology consists of the the following steps (2):

  • Isolation is necessary unless direct milking of a desired algal product is possible. The first step in microalgae value creation is the isolation (harvesting) thereof from the production medium. There are several techniques available for this.
  • Purification strategies for individual components from algal biomass are highly diverse, as a direct consequence of the complexity and diversity of the algae biomass ‘matrices’ and the physico-chemical properties of the compounds of interest therein.
  • Conversion: many isolated algal components will need to be (bio) chemically converted to match the exact application needs, e.g. conversion by transesterification.

The tactical biorefinery (3) first separates organic food material from residual trash, such as paper, plastic, Styrofoam and cardboard. The food waste goes to a bioreactor where industrial yeast ferments it into ethanol, a "green" fuel. Residual materials go to a gasifier where they are heated under low-oxygen conditions and eventually become low-grade propane gas and methane. The gas and ethanol are then combusted in a modified diesel engine that powers a generator to produce electricity.

Sources:
(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biorefinery
(2) http://www.algae.wur.nl/UK/technologies/biorefinery/
(3) http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2007a/070201LadischBio.html

bioremediation
 bioremediation

bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in soil, sludge, and solids either excavated or in situ. The microorganisms break down contaminants by using them as a food source or cometabolizing them with a food source. Aerobic processes require an oxygen source, and the end products typically are carbon dioxide and water.

Anaerobic processes are conducted in the absence of oxygen, and the end products can include methane, hydrogen gas, sulfide, elemental sulfur, and dinitrogen gas.

Ex situ bioremediation includes slurry-phase bioremediation, in which the soils are mixed in water to form a slurry to keep solids suspended and microorganisms in contact with the soil contaminants, and solid-phase bioremediation, in which the soils are placed in a cell or building and tilled with added water and nutrients.

Land farming, biopiles, and composting are examples of ex situ, solid-phase bioremediation. In situ bioremediation is bioremediation in place, rather than ex situ. In situ techniques stimulate and create a favorable environment for microorganisms to grow and use contaminants as a food and energy source. Generally, this means providing some combination of oxygen, nutrients, and moisture, and controlling the temperature and pH. Sometimes, microorganisms that have been adapted for degradation of specific contaminants are applied to enhance the process.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Bioremediation_of_Chlorinated_Solvents/cat/Overview/

bioremediation based on anaerobic oxidation
 bioremediation based on anaerobic oxidation
bioremediation based on anaerobic reduction
 bioremediation based on anaerobic reduction
biosensor
 biosensor
biosparging
 biosparging
aeration of the saturated soil zone combined with nutrient supplement for the intensification of aerobic microbial activity in the saturated soil zone.
biostabilisation
 biostabilisation
biostimulation
 biostimulation

biostimulation, the addition of nutrients to encourage the growth of indigenous contaminant-degrading microorganisms, is one of the most mature methods of bioremediation. It is applicable to both chlorinated and unchlorinated dissolved hydrocarbons.

Biostimulation is dependent on indigenous organisms and thus requires that they are present and that their environment can be altered in a way that will have the desired bioremediation effect. In addition to an explanation of the concept of biostimulation, this chapter discusses critical aspects of site biogeochemistry, characterization and monitoring, combined biological technologies, and research needs.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Bioremediation_of_Chlorinated_Solvents/cat/Overview/

biota
 biota
biotechnology
 biotechnology
biotechnology based on biodegradation
 biotechnology based on biodegradation
biotenzides
 biotenzides
biotin
 biotin

biotin is also called vitamin H or coenzyme R. It belongs to the group of vitamin B. Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in the Krebs-cycle (citric acid cycle), where the biochemical energy is generated during aerobic respiration. Biotin also helps to transfer carbon dioxide.

Biotin may also be helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level and is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails. Consequently, it is found in many cosmetics and health products for the hair and skin, though it cannot be absorbed through the hair or skin itself.

Biotin deficiency is rare, as intestinal bacteria generally produce an excess of the body's recommended daily requirement. For that reason, statutory agencies in many countries do not prescribe a recommended daily intake of biotin.

Biotin is consumed from a wide range of food sources in the diet, however there are few particularly rich sources. Foods with a relatively high biotin content include egg yolk, liver, and some vegetables. The dietary biotin intake in Western populations has been estimated to be 35 to 70 μg/d (143–287 nmol/d).

biotransformation, bioconversion
 biotransformation, bioconversion
bioventing
 bioventing

bioventing is a promising new technology that stimulates the natural in situ biodegradation of any aerobically degradable compounds in soil by providing oxygen to existing soil microorganisms. In contrast to soil vapor vacuum extraction, bioventing uses low air flow rates to provide only enough oxygen to sustain microbial activity. Oxygen is most commonly supplied through direct air injection into residual contamination in soil. In addition to degradation of adsorbed fuel residuals, volatile compounds are biodegraded as vapors move slowly through biologically active soil.

The U.S. Air Force has produced a technical memorandum which summarizes the results of bioventing treatability studies of fuels conducted at 145 US Air Force sites. The memorandum discusses overall study results and presents cost and performance data and lessons learned.

Regulatory acceptance of this technology has been obtained in 30 states and in all 10 EPA regions, and the use of this technology in the private sector is growing rapidly following USAF leadership.

Bioventing is a medium to long-term technology. Cleanup ranges from a few months to several years.

Bioventing techniques have been successfully used to remediate soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, nonchlorinated solvents, some pesticides, wood preservatives, and other organic chemicals.

While bioremediation cannot degrade inorganic contaminants, bioremediation can be used to change the valence state of inorganics and cause adsorption, uptake, accumulation, and concentration of inorganics in micro or macroorganisms. These techniques, while still largely experimental, show considerable promise of stabilizing or removing inorganics from soil.

Factors that may limit the applicability and effectiveness of the process include:

* The water table within several feet of the surface, saturated soil lenses, or low permeability soils reduce bioventing performance.

* Vapors can build up in basements within the radius of influence of air injection wells. This problem can be alleviated by extracting air near the structure of concern.

* Extremely low soil moisture content may limit biodegradation and the effectiveness of bioventing.

* Monitoring of off-gases at the soil surface may be required.

* Aerobic biodegradation of many chlorinated compounds may not be effective unless there is a co-metabolite present, or an anaerobic cycle.

* Low temperatures may slow remediation, although successful remediation has been demonstrat

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.frtr.gov/matrix2/section4/4_1.html

biphenyl
 biphenyl

biphenyl is an aromatic hydrocarbon with a molecular formula (C6H5)2.

CAS number 92-52-4

PubChem 7095

ChemSpider 6828 Yes

Molecular formula: C12H10

Molar mass: 154.21 g mol−1

Appearance: colorless crystals

Density: 1.04 g/cm3[1]

Melting point: 69.2 °C, 342 K, 157 °F

Boiling point: 255 °C, 528 K, 491 °F

Solubility in water: 4.45 mg/L

Flash point: 113 °C (235 °F)

Autoignition

temperature: 540 °C (1,004 °F)[

Hazards

EU Index 601-042-00-8

EU classification: Irritant (Xi), Dangerous for the environment (N)

R-phrases R36/37/38 R50/53

S-phrases (S2) S23 S60 S61

It is notable as a starting material for the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were once widely used as dielectric fluids and heat transfer agents. Biphenyl is also an intermediate for the production of a host of other organic compounds such as emulsifiers, optical brighteners, crop protection products, and plastics.

bíróság
 bíróság
birtokvédelem
 birtokvédelem
bisphenol A
 bisphenol A
bit, informatics
 bit, informatics

a bit is a specific amount of information found in computers. It is abreviation of Binary Unit.

Bytes, kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes are all increasing levels of bits. A bit is the smallest piece of computer memory. It is either 1 or 0, meaning on or off. It is exactly one-eighth.

bizonyítási teher
 bizonyítási teher
black earth
 black earth

the term black earth is synonymous with Chernozem used (e.g. in Australia) to describe self-mulching black clays.

blank, chemical analysis
 blank, chemical analysis

an analyte-free matrix to which all reagents are added in the same volumes or proportions as used in sample processing. The method blank should be carried through the complete sample preparation and analytical procedure. The method blank is used to document contamination resulting from the analytical process.

blending zone
 blending zone
blog, weblog, IT
 blog, weblog, IT
bluetooth, IT
 bluetooth, IT
BMD 10
 BMD 10

the benchmark dose (BMD associated with a 10% response (for tumours upon lifetime exposure after correction for spontaneous incidence; for other effects in a specified study).

Source: REACH

BMDL 10
 BMDL 10

the lower 95% confidence interval of a benchmark dose representing a 10% response (e.g. tumour response upon lifetime exposure), i.e. the lower 95% confidence interval of a BMD 10.

Source: REACH

BMI
 BMI

body mass index

BMRC criterion
 BMRC criterion
BOD
 BOD
biologica oxigene demand
body burden
 body burden

the total amount of a chemical substance in the body. Some substances build up in the body because they are stored in fat or bone or because they leave the body very slowly.

body sound insulation
 body sound insulation
Body weight (Bw)
 Body weight (Bw)
important factor in the health risk assessment of chemicals. To exclude the difference between individuals (e.g. adult man contra child), the toxicological endpoints (NOAEL, LOAEL, ED, BMD) are given in a specific value related to the body mass, e.g. in dose/kg body weight.
bog
 bog

wetland that has no significant inflows or outflows, supports acidophilic mosses, particularly Sphagnum and in which peat is accumulating. Similar to: fen, marsh, pocosin, swamp, and wetland.

boiling point
 boiling point
the temperature at which the pressure of the saturated vapour of a liquid equals the standard atmospheric pressure. A physico-chemical parameter required by REACH. This data is one of the criteria used in assigning a substance to an appropriate flammability category. (classification, classification and labelling of chemicals, REACH) (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html) The study does not need to be conducted for gases; or for solids which either melt above 300C or decompose before boiling. In such cases the boiling point under reduced pressure may be estimated or measured; or for substances which decompose before boiling (e.g. auto-oxidation, rearrangement, degradation, decomposition, etc.).

breast cancer
 breast cancer

breast cancer can begin in different areas of the breast – the ducts, the lobules, or in some cases, the tissue in between. The different types of breast cancer nclude non-invasive, invasive, recurrent, and metastatic breast cancers. Breast cancer may occur in men.

DCIS – Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

IDC – Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

IDC Type: Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast

IDC Type: Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast

IDC Type: Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast

IDC Type: Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast

IDC Type: Cribriform Carcinoma of the Breast

ILC – Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

Inflammatory Breast Cancer

LCIS – Lobular Carcinoma In Situ

Male Breast Cancer

Paget's Disease of the Nipple

Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer

Source: http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/

BREF
 BREF

BAT Reference Document

brodifacoum
 brodifacoum

it is an anticoagulant rodenticide, similar to warfarin. Brodifacoum is a so-called second generation anticoagulant rodenticide, which like other coumarin derivatives, is a vitamin K antagonist. They function by inhibiting the ability of the blood to clot at the site of a haemorrhage, by blocking the regeneration of vitamin K in the liver. Death of target organisms is due to massive internal haemorrhages after several days of ingestion of a lethal dose.

In the course of coagulation, blood clots form when the soluble protein fibrinogen, normally present in the blood, is converted by the enzyme thrombin to the insoluble fibrous protein fibrin, which binds platelets and blood cells to form a solid mass referred to as a blood clot, sealing the site of the haemorrhage and preventing further blood loss. Thrombin is not present in the blood, and is formed at the site of injury from prothrombin. Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin occurs via the coagulation cascade, in which the blood clotting factors are employed. Without these blood factors clotting cannot take place, and the haemorrhage will not be controlled by clot formation. The synthesis of a number of blood coagulation factors is dependent upon vitamin K hydroquinone, which acts as a co-enzyme.

The anticoagulant rodenticides such as brodifacoum work by blocking the regeneration of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K hydroquinone. Since, the amount of vitamin K in the body is finite, the progressive block of the regeneration of vitamin K will lead to an increasing probability of a fatal haemorrhage.

  • Chemical Name: 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 3-[3-(4’-bromo[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]-4-hydroxy- (CAS name)
  • EC Name: 4-hydroxy-3-(3-(4'-bromo-4-biphenylyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)coumarin (EINECS)
  • EC number: 259-980-5 (EINECS)
  • CAS Number: 56073-10-0
  • IUPAC Name: 3-[3-(4'-bromobiphenyl-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl]-4-hydroxycoumarin

Brodifacoum consists of a mixture of cis/trans-isomers.

Physico-chemical hazard:

Brodifacoum does not exhibit hazardous physico-chemical properties. Brodifacoum is thermally stable. Brodifacoum is not highly flammable and it shows no self-ignition below the melting point. Brodifacoum has not oxidizing or explosive properties, either. Brodifacoum does not show signs of reaction with container materials.

Environmnetal fate and behavior:

The studies indicated that brodifacoum is hydrolytically stable at pH 4, 7 and 9; the hydrolytic half-life (DT50) is above one year at environmentally relevant pH.

Photolysis of brodifacoum is fast with 38% removal in the first hour of exposure. Greater than 89% photolysis was noted to have occurred by around three hours. Furthermore, whatever the season, the half-life of Brodifacoum is less than one day. In the laboratory the substance completes photolysis. No degradation products were detected.

The photo-oxidation of Brodifacoum in air has been estimated using AOPWIN. According to these calculations, Brodifacoum has a potential for rapid photo-oxidative degradation in air with a half-life of 6.61 h, considering COH 0.5 x 106 molec/cm3 and the time 24 h.

Brodifacoum is not ready or inherently biodegradable. It is considered as bioaccumulative (the log Kow value fulfils the criteria for bioaccumulation potential according to Regulation EC 1272/2008 as it exceeds the value of 4).

Toxicokinetics: an almost complete oral absorption (> 75%) can be considered, on the basis of the amount of radioactivity recovered in the excreta and retained in the tissues. Brodifacoum is widely distributed and bioaccumulates mainly in the liver with lower concentrations in the kidney. Hepatic bioaccumulation of brodifacoum is a non-linear vs. dose and time. The elimination kinetic from the liver was biphasic, with an half-life in the range of 282-350 days. The excretion after oral administration is very slow (11–14% in 10 days), occurring via the urine and the bile, both as polar metabolites (glucuronide) and parent compound. The metabolism of Brodifacoum is limited and the toxicologically relevant chemical species is the parent compound.

Human toxicity

As long as dermal absorption is concerned, on the basis of the available study and reading across from data on other 2nd generation anticoagulant rodenticides, two different values could be used for risk characterization depending on the type of formulation, that is 5% (pellets and grains) or 0.047% (wax block bait).

On the basis of the available information brodifacoum is very toxic after oral administration and also via the dermal and inhalation routes. Death was the result of internal haemorrhage in the acute toxicity tests.

Although brodifacoum showed no sensitizing potential in a LLNA study in mice, it was able to cause skin sensitization in a high number of guinea pig. Therefore, the overall results indicate for Brodifacoum a potential for skin sensitization.

Repeated oral exposure to brodifacoum resulted in clinical signs and toxicity consistent with the mode of action of the rodenticide and its properties of anti-coagulant agent (lethal haemorrhages). The NOEL for subchronic oral toxicity both in rats and dog is in the range 1–40 mg/kg/day (the lowest values identified with sensitive end-points, such as increases in both the kaolin-cephalin time and the prothrombin time, related to the mode of action, thus considered as early diagnostic signs). Based on results from the acute dermal and inhalation toxicity studies, route-to-route extrapolation, consistently with the decision adopted for other second generation anticoagulants, it is justified to assume serious damages associated to prolonged exposure through dermal and inhalation routes also. Therefore, classification with T; R48/23/24/25 “Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed” is warranted.

Brodifacoum displayed no mutagenic activity in a standard range of genotoxicity tests. Brodifacoum has no structural alerts for carcinogenicity and no concern about possible non-genotoxic carcinogenic potential can be derived from the toxicological studies.

The available studies provided no hint that brodifacoum may elicit reproductive or developmental effects at dose levels at which the specific anticoagulant effects are not induced. However, the issue of human developmental hazard remains an open one.

In Europe it is classified as:

  • Acute Tox. 2 H300
  • Acute Tox. 1 H310
  • Acute Tox. 1 H330
  • STOT RE 1 H372
  • Repr. 1B H360D*
  • Skin Sens 1 H317

Environmnetal hazard:

Fish: 100% fish died at 0.11 mg a.s./l. The 96h LC50 was calculated equal to 0.042 mg a.s./l.

Daphnia magna: the calculated 48h EC50 was 0.25 mg/l (0.20 – 0.31). No statistically significant effect were observed at 0.12 mg/l.

Algae: A 72 h study with algae, carried out with Selenastrum capricornutum (renamed Pseudokirkneriella subcapitata) according OECD 201 and under GLP provisions, is available. Nominal test concentrations were 0 (control), DMF, 0.032, 0.056, 0.10, 0.18, 0.32 mg/l. The endpoints of the study have been recalculated on the basis of the geometric mean concentrations, hence: NOEC = 0.010 mg/l, EbC50 0.016 mg/l and ErC50 0.04 mg/l.

It is classified in Europe under CLP as

  • Aquatic Acute 1 H400 (M= 10)
  • Aquatic cronic 1 H410.


EC Number:

259-980-5 (EINECS)

brownfield
 brownfield
brownfield investment
 brownfield investment

investment on brownfield after clean-up. The economical backgroud of brownfiel reuse is the cost-benefit assessment: a beneficial new land use maybe able to cover the costs of the remediation/rehabilitation.

brownfield land
 brownfield land

&show

brownfield or brownfield land is a moderately contaminated area previously were in industrial, mining, waste disposal or certain commercial uses. These sites have the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up.

Brownian motion
 Brownian motion
browser, IT
 browser, IT
BTEX
 BTEX

benzene, or benzol, is an aromatic ring with the molecular formula C6H6. benzene is a colorless and flammable liquid with a strong smell and a relatively high melting point. Because it is a known carcinogen, its use as in gasoline is now limited, but it is an important industrialsolvent and precursor in the production of drugs and plastics. benzene is a natural constituent of mineral oil.

Alkylbenzenes are organic compounds that has an alkyl group bound to a benzene ring. Well known alkylbenzenes are methylbenzene, ethylbenzene and toluene, all of them are colorless flammable liquids obtained from petroleum or coal tar, used as a solvent for gums and lacquers and in high-octane fuels.

bulk density
 bulk density

bulk density is a property of powders, granules and other "divided" solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical substances, (pharmaceutical) ingredients, foodstuff or any other masses of corpuscular or particulate matter. It is defined as the mass of many particles of the material divided by the total volume they occupy. The total volume includes particle volume, inter-particle void volume and internal pore volume.

Bulk density is not an intrinsic property of a material; it can change depending on how the material is handled. For example, a powder poured in to a cylinder will have a particular bulk density; if the cylinder is disturbed, the powder particles will move and usually settle closer together, resulting in a higher bulk density. For this reason, the bulk density of powders is usually reported both as "freely settled" (or "poured" density) and "tapped" density (where the tapped density refers to the bulk density of the powder after a specified compaction process, usually involving vibration of the container.)

Sorce: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulk_density

bulk sample
 bulk sample

a sample taken from a larger quantity (lot) for analysis or recording purposes.

bushel, unit of measure
 bushel, unit of measure

a bushel is a British and U.S. customary unit of dry volume, equivalent in each of these systems to 4 pecks or 8 gallons. It is used for volumes of dry (not liquid) materials, most often in agriculture. The name derives from the 14th century buschel or busschel, a box. Its conversion to other units of volume:

bushels (US) bushels (British) 0.968 9
bushels (US) cubic feet 1.244 456
bushels (US) cubic inches 2,150.42
bushels (US) cubic meters 0.035 239 07
bushels (US) cubic yards 0.046 090 96
bushels (US) dekaliters 3.523 907
bushels (US) dry pints 64
bushels (US) dry quarts 32
bushels (US) liters 35.239 070 17
bushels (US) pecks 4

BUSINESSEUROPE
 BUSINESSEUROPE

The Confederation of European Business.

"BUSINESSEUROPE is the leading advocate for growth and competitiveness at European level, standing up for companies across the continent and campaigning on the issues that most influence their performance. It is a recognised social partner, speaking for all-sized enterprises in 35 European countries whose national business federations are direct members of Business Europe."

Source: http://www.businesseurope.eu/

Bw
 Bw

Body weight, used in toxicology for quantification of the intake by human, e.g. 3 mg/kg Bw, meaning 3 mg intake per kg.

by-product
 by-product

an incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable, or it can have negative ecological consequences.

C&L
C&L
 C&L

classification and labelling of chemical substances under the REACH regulation.

See also: classification and labelling of chemical substances

c-DNS library
 c-DNS library

the cDNA library contains only complementary DNA molecules synthesized from mRNA molecules in a cell.

The advantage of cDNA library is that it contains only the coding region of a genome. To prepare a cDNA library, the first step is to isolate the total mRNA from the cell type of interest. Because eukaryotic mRNAs consist of a poly-A tail, they can easily be separated. Then the enzyme reverse transcriptase is used to synthesize a DNA strand complementary to each mRNA mlecule. After the single-stranded DNA molecules are converted into double-stranded DNA molecules by DNA polymerase, they are inserted into vectors and cloned.

CAAT, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
 CAAT, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing

The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) works since 1981 to find new methods to replace the use of laboratory animals in experiments, reduce the number of animals tested, and refine necessary tests to eliminate pain and distress.

CAAT provides a variety of resources, including grants for scientists developing non-animal methods workshops on alternative methods, books, newsletters, and other publications.

They also manage Altweb, an international online clearinghouse of alternatives news. You can visit the video documentary.

See also: http://caat.jhsph.edu/

CABERNET Project
 CABERNET Project

Concerted Action on brownfield and Economic Regeneration Network.

The CABERNET network consists of 55 Members, including 8 Team Leaders and 4 Coordination Team members, originating from 21 countries across Europe.

The groups cover the different aspects of rehabilitation of brownfield sites. The network has been divided into 8 distinct stakeholder groups. A number of Stakeholder Groups also have invited non-contracted Associate Members.

CABERNET has a distinct multi-disciplinary flavour, consisting of members from a wide range of professional backgrounds including environmental science, engineering, spatial and urban planning, and political administration.

The Members, drawn from across the European Community and accession countries, represent interests that span the stakeholder spectrum.

Source: http://www.cabernet.org.uk/index.asp?c=1125

Cadmium (Cd)
 Cadmium (Cd)
calibration
 calibration

calibration is he set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, and the corresponding known values. The result of a calibration is sometimes expressed as a calibration factor, or as a series of calibration factors in the form of a calibration curve.

Calibration standard is a substance or reference material used to calibrate an instrument.

Calibration check standard is a standard independently prepared (different source, different analyst) from the calibration standards and run after the original calibration to verify the original calibration. There is usually at least one calibration check standard per batch.

calibration curve
 calibration curve

calibration curve gives the relation between analyte concentration and analytical response. Normally at least 3-5 appropriately placed calibration standards are needed to adequately define the curve. The curve should incorporate a low standard not exceeding 10 times the detection limit. Analytical response, where appropriate, is zeroed using a reagent blank. Either a linear or other curve fit, as appropriate, may be used. Standards and samples must have equivalent reagent backgrounds (e.g., solvent, acid content, etc.) at the point of analysis.

calibration curve, chemical analysis
 calibration curve, chemical analysis

a plot of concentrations of known analyte standards versus the instrument response to the analyte. Calibration standards are prepared by successively diluting a standard solution to produce working standards that cover the working range of the instrument. Standards should be prepared at the frequency specified in the appropriate section. The calibration standards should be prepared using the same type of acid or solvent and at the same concentration as will result in the samples following sample preparation. This is applicable to organic and inorganic chemical analyses.

calibration standard
 calibration standard

a substance or reference material used to calibrate an instrument.

canal
 canal
cancer
 cancer

any one of a group of diseases that occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow or multiply out of control.

Carcinogenity of chemical substances is confirmed by animal testing. In carcinogenicity tests the tumors grown on the effect of the substance are investigated.

caprolactam
 caprolactam

the basic substance of nylon synthesis. Caprolactam is produced from phenol.

CARACAL, REACH
 CARACAL, REACH

CARACAL is an expert group giving advice for the European Commission and ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) on questions related to REACH and CLP. It was founded as "European Commission Working Group on the Practical Preparations for REACH" in May 2004. As of September 2007, it was re-named into "REACH Competent Authorities (REACH CA)" and, as of March 2009, into "Competent Authorities for REACH and CLP (CARACAL)".

See also: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/chemicals/reach/caracal/index_en.htm

CARACAS Project
 CARACAS Project
carbofuran
 carbofuran

carbofuran is one of the most toxic chttp://enfo.hu/mokka/secure/.tmp/glossary/glossary_edit.phparbamate pesticides. It is marketed under the trade names Furadan, by FMC Corporation and Curater, among several others. It is used to control insects in a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans. It is a systemic insecticide, which means that the plant absorbs it through the roots, and from here the plant distributes it throughout its organs where insecticidal concentrations are attained. Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests.

Carbofuran usage has increased in recent years because it is one of the few insecticides effective on soybean aphids, which have expanded their range since 2002 to include most soybean-growing regions of the U.S. The main global producer is the FMC Corporation.

IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate

Other names: Carbofuran, Furadan, Curater

CAS number 1563-66-2 Yes

PubChem 2566

ChemSpider 2468 Yes

UNII SKF77S6Y67 Yes

KEGG C14291 Yes

ChEBI CHEBI:34611 Yes

ChEMBL CHEMBL416081 Yes

Properties

Molecular formula: C12H15NO3

Molar mass: 221.25 g mol−1

Appearance: white, crystalline solid

Density: 1.18 g/cm3

Melting point: 151 °C; 304 °F; 424 K ([4])

Boiling point: 313.3 °C; 595.9 °F; 586.5 K

Solubility in water: 320 mg/L[1]

Solubility: highly soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, acetonitrile, methylene chloride, cyclohexanone, benzene, and xylene[2]

log P: 2.32 (octanol/water)[3]

Hazards

Flash point: 143.3 °C; 289.9 °F; 416.4 K

LD50: 8–14 mg/kg (oral, rat); 19 mg/kg (oral, dog)

Sources, literature:

EU pesticide datrabase: Carbofuran, SANCO/10054/2006 final, 7 September 2007 - http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/protection/evaluation/existactive/list_carbofuran.pdf

Pesticide info - http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35055

http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35055

EXTOXNET - The Extension Toxicology Network http://extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/carbofur.htm

AERU - Agriculture & Environment Research Unit University of Hertfordshire http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/footprint/en/Reports/118.htm

CDPR - California Department of Pesticide Regulation http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/emon/pubs/fatememo/carbofuran.pdf

carbohydrate
 carbohydrate

any member of a very abundant and widespread class of natural organic substances, compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, that includes the sugars, starch, and cellulose.

Carbon (dioxide) equivalent (CO2eqv)
 Carbon (dioxide) equivalent (CO2eqv)

Common measure of global warming potential constructed by converting the emissions of the six ‘Kyoto’ greenhouse gases into the equivalent radiative forcing units of CO2.*

All greenhouse gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP). This value is used to compare the abilities of different greenhouse gases to trap heat in the atmosphere. GWPs are based on the heat-absorbing ability of each gas relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the decay rate of each gas (the amount removed from the atmosphere over a given number of years). GWPs can also be used to define the impact greenhouse gases will have on global warming over different time periods or time horizons. These are usually 20 years, 100 years and 500 years.**

*Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.

** http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/global-warming-potential.html

Carbon abatement, biochar
 Carbon abatement, biochar

The net effect of changes in greenhouse gas fluxes that result from the production and application of biochar. This can include any or all of the following: carbon stored in biochar; carbon and CO2 released during pyrolysis; offset CO2 emissions arising from avoided fossil fuel combustion; offset carbon emissions from reduced chemical inputs to agriculture; suppression of nitrous oxide and/or methane through biochar addition to soils; accumulation of carbon in soil organic matter arising from enhanced Net Primary Productivity; and offset carbon emissions from reduced operations in the field.

(Reference: Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

carbon capture and storage (CCS)
 carbon capture and storage (CCS)

carbon capture and storage (CCS), also mentioned as carbon capture and sequestration, is a means of mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to global warming, based on capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants, and storing it in such a way that it does not enter the atmosphere.

Storage of the CO2 is envisaged either in deep geological formations, in deep ocean masses, or in the form of mineral carbonates. Geological formations are currently considered the most promising sequestration sites. Deep ocean storage has a risk of increased ocean acidification. Leakage of the underground storage places has also certain risk.

Although CO2 has been injected into geological formations for various purposes, the long term storage of CO2 is a relatively new concept. The first commercial example is Weyburn in 2000. Integrated pilot-scale CCS power plant was to begin operating in September 2008 in the eastern German power plant Schwarze Pumpe run by utility Vattenfall, in the hope of answering questions about technological feasibility and economic efficiency.

CCS applied to a modern conventional power plant could reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80-90% compared to a plant without CCS.

Capturing and compressing CO2 requires much energy and would increase the fuel needs of a coal-fired plant with CCS by 25%-40%. Estimates for 2025 say, that costs with CO2 sequestration will not be higher, than without. (Source: Wikipedia)

Carbon capture and storage has also been used to describe biological capture by plants and microorganisms and subsequent storage of atmospheric CO2, mainly in soil, and also in surface water sediments.

Biological sequestration involves the net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere by plants and micro-organisms and its storage in vegetative biomass or structura organic matter. such as humus. Terrestrial carbon sequestration means the storage in storage in vegetative biomass and in soils.

Terrestrial sequestration applies agro- and forestry-technologies as well as ecoengineering tools and offers many potential advantages:

  • could sequester relatively large volumes of carbon at comparatively low cost
  • protecting or improving soils, water resources, habitat, and biodiversity
  • generate rural income
  • promotes more sustainable agriculture and forestry practices.
carbon cycle
 carbon cycle

the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.

carbon dioxide
 carbon dioxide

a colourless, non-poisonous gas (under a certain concentration) that is a normal part of the ambient air. CO2 or carbon dioxide is formed in combustion of fossil fuel or any carbon-containing organic materials. It is the endproduct of biological oxidation (energy production) by the respiration of aerobic or alternative respiration of anaerobic organisms. CO2 is employed by plants and other phototrophic organisms in the photosynthesis of carbohydrates.

carbon dioxide par
 carbon dioxide par
carbon monoxide
 carbon monoxide
carbon sequestration
 carbon sequestration

a carbon-management method, the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and the carbon cycle, and depositing it in a reservoir, in biomass or in stabile natural organic matter forms. See also carbon capture and storage (CCS).

carbon sequestration (biochar)
 carbon sequestration (biochar)

The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir for long term (UNFCCC, 2009).

(Reference: Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

carbon tetrachloride
 carbon tetrachloride

arbon tetrachloride is produced by the high temperature chlorination of propylene or methane. It is used as a feedstock in the production of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs, as a process agent in the production of chlorine, to extract nitrogen trichloride, and as a solvent to recover chlorine from tail gas. It has been phased out in dispersive uses since 1995 under the Montreal Protocol.

carbon-management
 carbon-management

carbon management is the concept that the impact of burning fossil fuels on global warming might be minimized.

Carbon management have two main steps: carbon capturing or sequestration and carbon-storage. The practical solutions for minimizing emission and lowering CO2 content in the atmosphere may differ for point and diffuse sources.

Separation of emitted carbon (primarily carbon dioxide) maybe done by physico-chemical or biological methods. Physico-chemical methods are applied mainly for point sources (treatment of the emission of power plants and incinerators), the biological methods (immobilisation of CO2 by plants and microorganisms) for diffuse atmospheric CO2.

The storage may happen as deposites in geological formations or in biomass. The disposal into geological formations is carried out by geotechnologies. Storage in biomass is the result of agro- or ecotechnologies, and the carbon can be stored both in living or dead organic matter, or humus.

Terrestrial sequestration is based on biomass production (plant and microbial) an storage in the soil in form of humus.

carcinogenic chemicals
 carcinogenic chemicals

The definition of REACH, restricted to chemicals: carcinogen is a substance, a mixture of substances which induces cancer or increases its incidence (REACH).

The definition of UNECE (2004): "The term carcinogen denotes a chemical substance or a mixture of chemical substances which induce cancer or increase its incidence".

A third alternate definition is that carcinogenic substances are ones that "induce tumors (benign or malignant), increase their incidence or malignancy, or shorten the time of tumor occurrence when they are inhaled, injected, dermally applied, or ingested".

Carcinogens are classified according to their mode of action as genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens. Genotoxic carcinogens initiate carcinogenesis by direct interaction with DNA, resulting in DNA damage or chromosomal aberrations that can be detected by genotoxicity tests (OECD, 2006).

Nongenotoxic carcinogens are agents that, at least initially, indirectly interact with DNA. These indirect modifications to DNA structure, amount, or function may result in altered gene expression or signal transduction (OECD, 2006).

In animal studies, most potent mutagens are also found to be carcinogenic (Maurici, et al., 2005). Substances that induce tumors in animals are considered as presumed or suspected human carcinogens until convincing evidence to the contrary is presented (UNECE, 2004).

Sources:
REACH Glossary
http://alttox.org/ttrc/toxicity-tests/carcinogenicity/
UNECE, 2004
Maurici D, Aardema M, Corvi R, et al. (2005), “Carcinogenicity”. Alt Lab Anim Vol. 33 (Suppl 1): 177−182

carcinogenic effect, carcinogenicity, carcinogeneity
 carcinogenic effect, carcinogenicity, carcinogeneity

carcinogenic effect has a substance or a mixture of substances which induces cancer or increases its incidence and/or malignancy or shorten the time to tumour occurrence. Causing cancer may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Carcinogenic chemicals have conventionally been divided into two categories according to the presumed mode of action. Non-genotoxic modes of action include epigenetic changes, i.e., effects that do not involve alterations in DNA but that may influence gene expression, altered cell-cell communication, or other factors involved in the carcinogenic process.

Cancer is a disorder of the cells, characterized by the lack of programmed cell death. Carcinogens induces the uncontrolled, malignant division pf cells, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Usually DNA damage leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell cannot prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell. The objective of investigating the carcinogenicity of chemicals is to identify potential human carcinogens, their mode(s) of action, and their potency. Once a chemical has been identified as a carcinogen, there is a need to elucidate the underlying mode of action, i.e. whether the chemical is directly genotoxic or not. For genotoxic carcinogens it is assumed that, unless exception, there is no discernible threshold and that any level of exposure carries a risk. For non-genotoxic carcinogens, no-effect-thresholds are assumed to exist and to be discernable. Human studies are generally not available for making a distinction between the above mentioned modes of action; and a conclusion on this, in fact, depends on the outcome of mutagenicity testing and other mechanistic studies. In addition to this, animal studies may also inform on the underlying mode of carcinogenic action.

The cancer hazard and mode of action may also be highly dependent on exposure conditions such as the route of exposure. Therefore, all relevant effect data and information on human exposure conditions are evaluated.

carotene
 carotene

carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment in plants. Carotenes are responsible for the orange colour of the carrot for which it is named, and many other fruits and vegetables. Some type of microorganisms also synthetize carotenes.

In humans β-carotene can be stored in the liver and body fat and converted to retinal as needed, thus making it a form of vitamine-A for humans and some other mammals. The carotenes α-carotene and γ-carotene, due to their single retinyl group, also have some vitamin A activity (though less than β-carotene), but all other carotenoids, including lycopene, have no beta-ring and thus no vitamin A activity.

Carotenes are natural antioxidants and such thay are used for dietary supplements or food and cosmetics preservatives to prevent oxidation.

carrier gas
 carrier gas
CAS-number
 CAS-number
chemical Abstracts Service index number.It is a unique numeric identifier and has no chemical significance. It includes up to 9 digits which are separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number, starting from the left, has up to 6 digits, the second part has 2 digits and the final part consists of a single check digit.
case study, REACH
 case study, REACH
catalyst
 catalyst

a substance which aids or promotes a chemical reaction without forming part of the final product. It enables the reaction to take place faster, remains unchanged at the end of the reaction and can provide control by increasing desirable reactions and decreasing undesirable reactions.

Biological catalysts are enzymes, which work in the living organisms, anabling reactions take place on low temperature and pressure. They accept specific substrates and catalyse specific reactions.

A catalytic converter in our casr is a device used to reduce the toxicity of emissions from an internal combustion engine. Catalytic converters are also used on generator sets, forklifts, mining equipment, trucks, buses, trains, airplanes and other engine-equipped machines. A catalytic converter provides an environment for a chemical reaction wherein toxic combustion by-products, such as NOx are converted to less-toxic substances, e.g. N2.

cation-exchange resins
 cation-exchange resins
cationic detergents
 cationic detergents
caustic soda
 caustic soda

it is also called simply caustic or lye, its chemical formula is NaOH. originally ot was produced from soda (Na2CO3), today it is the principal co-product in chlorine manufacture. Sold as a household chemical for unblocking drains and used industrially in the manufacture of rayon, pulp and paper, aluminium, soaps and detergents, textiles and vegetable oils.

CCME
 CCME

CCME = Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment

CD
 CD
cyclodextrin, cyclic carbohydrate consisting of several glucose units

CDT
 CDT
cyclodextrin Technology, a bioremediation technology utilizing a special carbohydrate (sugar), cyclodextrin (more exactly random methylated beta-cyclodextrin) for improving the bioavailablitity of the organic contaminants in the soil. The effect of cyclodextrin is based on solubilization, mobilization of the contaminants, which are desorbed from the soil and get to the microbes to be degraded by them. The technology can be implemented either ex situ (after removing the soil from its original place) or in situ (without removing the soil). The time saving by the cyclodextrin-intensified bioremediation may compensate for the higher price of the technology. Further details can be found in MOKKA database (sheets No. 51 and 175). Further literature: Gruiz, K.; Fenyvesi, E.; Kriston, E.; Molnar, M.; Horvath, B. (1996) J. Inclusion Phenom. Mol. Recognit. Chem. 25(1-3), 233-236, Leitgib, L.; Gruiz, K.; Fenyvesi, E.; Balogh, G.; Muranyi, A. (2008) Science of the Total Environment, 392(1), 12-21

CEECs
 CEECs

Central and Eastern European Countries.

CEFIC
 CEFIC

CEFIC (European Chemical Industry Council) is the Brussels-based organization representing the European chemical industry. Since its creation in 1972, Cefic has grown to become one of the largest and most efficient advocacy network amongst the industry trade organizations in Europe and in the world, representing 29 000 companies that produce about 30% of the world chemicals and employ about 1.3 million people, 22 national chemical federations and 6 associated federations across Europe. Took part in over 60 Strategy Implementation Groups and Issue Teams dealing with the industry's strategic concerns such as REACH, energy, environment, international trade, research & innovation and many others. More than 4000 industry experts from companies and federations participate in the Cefic groups. CEFIC has Close cooperation with the US, Japan and other major chemical countries through ICCA and many federations and trade unions.

The European Policy Centre comprises 7 programmes, backed up by the two corporate Communications and Advocacy functions:

* Product Stewardship

* Industrial Policy

* Energy, HSE and Logistics

* Build Trust

* Research and Innovation

* Legislation and Advocacy

* Business Development and Special Projects

The Services Unit addresses both in-house support services and member services:

* Procurement

* Support services

There are four Industry Sectors :

* Fine, Specialty and Consumer Chemicals (FSCC)

* Petrochemistry

* Halogens/Euro Chlor

* PlasticsEurope

Source: http://www.cefic.org

Celeron, IT
 Celeron, IT

Celeron is a brand name given by Intel Corp. to a number of different x86 computer microprocessor models targeted at budget personal computers.

Read more:

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celeron

CPU: http://www.cpu-world.com/CPUs/Celeron_D/

Intel: http://ark.intel.com/products/family/5263

cell culture
 cell culture

cells from living organisms, e.g. from Chinese hamster or human, cultivated in artificial medium under constant environmental conditions.

Permanent cultures are maintained for years, cells often transformed or from cancer biopsis, used for in vitro biotests.

Primary cells are isolated from an organism, e.g. primary hepatocytes (liver cells).

Cultured cells can be used in biotests in vitro and in vivo and substitute laboratory animals in the testing of chemicals.

cell factory
 cell factory
centimeter
 centimeter

the International System of Units is called "SI" and is the Metric Measurement used in America. 1 centimeter is one hundredth from a meter (0.01 m).There are exactly 100 cm (centimeters) in the Base Unit meter. The conversion is shown in the following table:

centimeters feet 0.032 808 40
centimeters inches 0.393 700 8
centimeters meters 0.01
centimeters yards 0.010 936 13
centimeters, cubic cubic inches 0.061 023 744
centimeters, square square feet 0.001 076 39
centimeters, square square inches 0.155 000 31
centimeters, square square meters 0.000 1
centimeters, square square yards 0.000 119 599
centromere (kinetochore)
 centromere (kinetochore)

region of a chromosome with which spindle fibers are associated during cell division, allowing orderly movement of daughter chromosomes to the poles of the daughter cells.

CERCLA
 CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Its common name is Superfund. It is a USA act of 1980 (CERCLA). This federal law was designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances. Superfund created the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and it provides broad federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger human health or the environment. The law authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify parties responsible for contamination of sites and compel the parties to clean up the sites. Where responsible parties cannot be found, the Agency is authorized to clean up sites itself, using a special trust fund.

Two main actions of Superfund:
1. Removal action: these are typically short-term response actions, where actions may be taken to address releases or threatened releases requiring prompt response. Removal actions are classified as: (1) emergency; (2) time-critical; and (3) non-time critical. Removal responses are generally used to address localized risks such as abandoned drums containing hazardous substances, contaminated surface soils posing acute risks to human health or the environment, etc.
2. Remedial actions: these are usually more long-term response actions than a removal action. Remedial actions permanently and significantly reduce the risks associated with releases or threats of releases of hazardous substances that are serious but lack the time-criticality of a removal action, and include such measures as preventing the migration of pollutants and neutralization of toxic substances. These actions can be conducted only at sites listed on the EPA National Priorities List (NPL), in the United States and territories.

certified reference material
 certified reference material

a reference material having one or more property values that are certified by a technically valid procedure, accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation that is issued by a certifying authority.

Certified Reference Material (CRM)
 Certified Reference Material (CRM)

Certified Reference Material (CRM)is a reference material having one or more property values that are certified by a technically valid procedure, accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation that is issued by a certifying authority.

CFC’s
 CFC’s
abbreviation for chloro-fluorocarbons, halogenated derivatives of methane and ethane containing carbon, chlorine and fluorine. They are also called on their trade name: Freons. Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), solvents, and insulating materials. Recognizing that they contribute to ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol in 1987 phased out its use and production. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation the most ozone-depleting CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 have already been phased out, some other compounds such as bromochlorodifluoromethane, bromotrifluoromethane used in fire suppression are phased out slower. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons consumption and production will be reduced from 2015. Till 2030 all freons will be phased out. Breathing large amounts of freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane) for short periods of time adversely affects the human nervous system. Effects range from dizziness to incoordination and irregular heart beat. These effects are not likely to occur at levels of freon 113 that are normally found in the environment. Hungary joined to the Montreal Protocol in 1989. (Source: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/CFC, http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/2___zonlyuk/_-_zonlyuk___CFC_2tl.html)

Chain Analysis Tools
 Chain Analysis Tools
challenge exposure
 challenge exposure

an experimental exposure of a previously treated subject to a test substance following an induction period, to determine if the subject reacts in a hypersensitive manner.

changing noise
 changing noise
characterisation in LCA
 characterisation in LCA
characterization factor, LCA
 characterization factor, LCA

a factor derived from a characterization model which is applied to convert the assigned LCI results to the common unit of the category indicator.

charcoal
 charcoal

Charcoal is the solid product of natural fire and traditional biomass conversion (charring) under partially pyrolytic conditions without yielding bioenergy co-products.

(Reference: Shackley SJ and Sohi SP (eds) 2010. An assessment of the benefits and issues associated with the application of biochar to soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.)

chart
 chart

a diagram that illustrates information in the form of a table, graph, or picture.

Chemical Abstract Service (CAS)
 Chemical Abstract Service (CAS)

Chemical Abstracts Service maintains the most comprehensive list of chemical substances. Each substance registered in the CAS Registry is assigned a CAS Registry Number. The CAS Registry Number (commonly referred to as CAS number) is widely used as a unique identifier of chemical substances. (Source: REACH Glossary)

chemical analysis
 chemical analysis

chemical analyses is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials.

Qualitative analysis gives an indication of the identity of the chemical species in the sample and quantitative analysis determines the amount of one or more of these components. The separation of components is generally performed prior to analysis.

Chemical analytical methods are classified according the tool they apply. According to the tools we differentiate between qualitative and quantitative analyses as well as preparatory methods.

Aim of the qualitative analysis is to find a direct or indirect proof for the presence of the substance in question or its product. Qualitative tools are: identification of the chemical compound based on physico-chemical behaviour (colour, melting point, flame-ionisation, mass-spectrum), chemical reactions, including biochemical and molecular biological (e.g. DNA) techniques, such as product of the chemical substance with a specific chemical reagent. In case of biologically active substances, the product of a biochemical reaction or the response of a biological system can also be measured. A new and very efficient analytical tool is the identification of certain DNA sequences.

Quantitative tools are based on measuring mass, volume, flux or intensity. For measuring the quantity-related endpoint the following traditional and instrumental methods can be used: gravimetry, volumetry, microscopy, spectrometry, mass spectrometry, electrochemical and thermal techniques, etc. Most of the quantitative tools apply standards to be able to express the result of the measured endpoint in concentration.

For the separation of the components of a mixture the traditional analysis applies precipitation, extraction, and distillation, the instrumental tools are the different chromatographic and electrophoretic methods.

Chemical analyses has widespread use in diagnosis and remediation, environmental science and practice, chemical industries, agriculture, food industry and all kind of other industries. The utilisation of analytical methods includes monitoring, early warning or quality assurance on the fields of human health, environment and industries.

chemical category of substances
 chemical category of substances
in the context of REACH a category of substances is a group of substances whose physicochemical, toxicological and/or ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity.
The similarities may be based on the following:
a) common functional group(s) (e.g. aldehyde, epoxide, ester, specific metal ion)
b) common constituents or chemical classes, similar carbon range numbers. This is frequently the case with complex substances often known as “substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products or Biological material” (UVCB substances)
c) an incremental and constant change across the category (e.g. a chain-length category), often observed in physicochemical properties, e.g. boiling point range
d) the likelihood of common precursors and/or breakdown products, via physical or biological processes, which result in structurally similar chemicals (e.g. the “metabolic pathway approach” of examining related chemicals such as acid/ester/salt). (Source: REACH Glossary)
chemical elements
 chemical elements

chemical elements are a pure chemical substances consisting of one type of atom. Chemical elements are characterised by their atomic number, which is the number of protons in their nucleus. All chemical molecules consists of elements. On the http://www.chemicalelements.co website you can see the periodic table and get deatiled information by clicking on the symbol of the element.

chemical hazard
 chemical hazard

the hazard associated with a chemical is its intrinsic ability to cause an adverse effect. It should be compared to risk, which is the chance that such effects will occur in the realty. Whilst a chemical may have hazardous properties, provided it is handled safely under contained conditions, any risk to human health or the environment is extremely low.

chemical immobilisation/stabilisation in soil
 chemical immobilisation/stabilisation in soil
chemical oxidation in soil
 chemical oxidation in soil

chemical oxidation typically involves reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions that chemically convert hazardous contaminants to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, or inert. Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one compound to another.

Specifically, one reactant is oxidized (loses electrons) and one is reduced (gains electrons).

The oxidizing agents most commonly used for treatment of hazardous contaminants in soil are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate, and Fentons reagent (hydrogen peroxide and iron).

Cyanide oxidation and dechlorination are examples of chemical treatment. This method may be applied in situ or ex situ, to soils, sludges, sediments, and other solids, and may also be applied for the in situ treatment of groundwater.

Source: US-EPA, ClU-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/In_Situ_Oxidation/cat/Overview/

chemical reaction
 chemical reaction

a chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances. Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products.

chemical reduction in soil
 chemical reduction in soil
chemical safety
 chemical safety

chemical Safety is achieved by undertaking all activities involving chemicals in such a way as to ensure the safety of human health and the environment.

It covers all chemicals, natural and manufactured, and the full range of exposure situations from the natural presence of chemicals in the environment to their extraction or synthesis, industrial production, transport use and disposal.

Chemical safety has many scientific and technical components. Among these are toxicology, ecotoxicology and the process of chemical risk assessment which requires a detailed knowledge of exposure and of biological effects.

Hazardous chemicals, naturally occurring or man-made, can reach our body through different routes (e.g., food, air, water) and cause a variety of health effects.

The number of existing chemicals and their compounds is very large, and for many of them the health risks are not known. Chemicals can be the result of anthropogenic sources or occur in nature. Hazardous chemicals can reach our body through different routes (e.g. food, air, water) and cause a variety of health effects.

Due to the many ways in which chemicals are used and released, the many exposure routes involved, and the different mixtures of chemicals present, the public health relevance of chemicals can be extremely difficult to assess. European Environment and Health Information System (ENHIS) indicators contribute to relate the exposure to hazardous chemicals to various policy measures that can be taken to reduce exposure or to prevent health effects.

Source: WHO — http://www.who.int/topics/chemical_safety/en/

Chemical Safety Assessment (CSA)
 Chemical Safety Assessment (CSA)

Chemical Safety Assessment is the process aimed at determining the risk posed by a substance and, as part of the exposure assessment, develop exposure scenarios including risk management measures to control the risks. Annex I contains general provisions for performing a CSA. The CSA consists of the following steps:
- Human health hazard assessment
- Human health hazard assessment of physicochemical properties
- Environmental hazard assessment
- PBT and vPvB assessment
If, as a result of this hazard assessment, the registrant concludes that the substance meets the criteria for classification as dangerous according to Directive 67/548/EEC (for substances) or has PBT/vPvB properties, this triggers further steps in the chemical safety assessment:
- exposure assessment
- risk characterization.
(Source: REACH, Glossary)

Chemical Safety Assessment (CSA), REACH
 Chemical Safety Assessment (CSA), REACH

Chemical Safety Assessment is the process aimed at determining the risk posed by a substance and, as part of the exposure assessment, develop exposure scenarios including risk management measures to control the risks. Annex I contains general provisions for performing a CSA. The CSA consists of the following steps:
- Human health hazard assessment
- Human health hazard assessment of physicochemical properties
- Environmental hazard assessment
- PBT and vPvB assessment
If, as a result of this hazard assessment, the registrant concludes that the substance meets the criteria for classification as dangerous according to Directive 67/548/EEC (for substances) or has PBT/vPvB properties, this triggers further steps in the chemical safety assessment:
- exposure assessment
- risk characterization.
(Source: REACH Glossary)

Chemical Safety Data-Sheet of Chemical Substance
 Chemical Safety Data-Sheet of Chemical Substance
Chemical Safety Datasheet
 Chemical Safety Datasheet

The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs) provide information on the intrinsic hazards of specific chemicals together with first aid and fire-fighting measures, and information about precautions for spillage, disposal, storage, packaging, labelling and transport. They are produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) in collaboration with the European Commission and various national bodies.

An ICSC is designed to complement a Material Safety Data Sheet, and to be used by individual workers rather than safety specialists. The cards are produced in a standard format, which eases translation between languages. The cards are currently available in HTML or PDF format in sixteen languages, and in paper format in other languages.

(http://www.inchem.org/pages/icsc.html)

Chemical Safety Report (CSR)
 Chemical Safety Report (CSR)

the chemical safety report documents the chemical safety assessment for a substance on its own, in a preparation or in an article or a group of substances.
In other words the Chemical Safety Report (CSR) is a document, which details the process and the results of a Chemical Safety Assessment (CSA). Annex I of the REACH Regulation contains general provisions for performing CSAs and preparing CSRs.
(Source: REACH Glossary)

Chemical Safety Report (CSR), REACH
 Chemical Safety Report (CSR), REACH

the chemical safety report documents the chemical safety assessment for a substance on its own, in a preparation or in an article or a group of substances.
In other words the Chemical Safety Report (CSR) is a document, which details the process and the results of a Chemical Safety Assessment (CSA). Annex I of the REACH Regulation contains general provisions for performing CSAs and preparing CSRs. (Source: REACH Glossary)

chemical soil treatment in slurry phase reactor
 chemical soil treatment in slurry phase reactor
chemical substance
 chemical substance
chemical substances, measuring ecotoxicity
 chemical substances, measuring ecotoxicity

in Annexes VII and VIII to Directive 79/831/EEC, methods for the determination of the ecotoxicity of chemical substances are enlisted. The methods are based on those recognized and recommended by competent international bodies (in particular OECD).

General introduction
1 acute toxicity for fish
2 acute toxicity for Daphnia
3 algal inhibition test
4 biodegradation: determination of the "ready" biodegradability
  4-a dissolved organic carbon (doc) die-away test
  4-b modified oecd screening test
  4-c carbon dioxide evolution test
  4-d manometric respirometry test
  4-e closed bottle test
  4-f miti test
5 degradation : biochemical oxygen demand

6 degradation: chemical oxygen demand
7 degradation: abiotic degradation: hydrolysis as a function of ph
8 toxicity for earthworms : artificial soil test
9 biodegradation: Zahn−Wellens test
10 biodegradation: activated sludge simulation test
11 biodegradation: activated sludge respiration inhibition test
12 biodegradation: modified scas test
13 bioconcentration: flow-through fish test
14 fish juvenile growth test
15 fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages
16 honeybees, acute oral toxicity test
17 honeybees, acute contact toxicity test
18 adsorption/desorption using a batch equilibrium method
19 estimation of the adsorption coefficient (koc) on soil and on sewage sludge using high performance liquid chromatography (hplc)
20 Daphnia magna reproduction test
21 soil microorganisms: nitrogen transformation test
22 soil microorganisms: carbon transformation test
23 aerobic and anaerobic transformation in soil
24 aerobic and anaerobic transformation in aquatic sediment systems

chemical substances, methods for the determination of the physico-chemical prope
chemical substances: methods for the determination of toxicity
 chemical substances: methods for the determination of toxicity

in Annexes VII and VIII to Directive 79/831/EEC, methods for the determination of the toxicity of chemical substances are enlisted. The methods are based on those recognized and recommended by competent international bodies (in particular OECD).

1 general introduction
1bis acute oral toxicity - fixed dose procedure
1tris acute oral toxicity - acute toxic class method
2 acute toxicity (inhalation)
3 acute toxicity (dermal)
4 acute toxicity: dermal irritation/corrosion
5 acute toxicity: eye irritation/corrosion
6 skin sensitisation
7 repeated dose (28 days) toxicity (oral)
8 repeated dose (28 days) toxicity (inhalation)
9 repeated dose (28 days) toxicity (dermal)
10 mutagenicity in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test)
11 mutagenicity in vivo mammalian bone-marrow chromosome aberration test
12 mutagenicity mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test
13/14 mutagenicity reverse mutation test using bacteria
15 gene mutation Saccharomyces cerevisae
16 mitotic recombination Saccharomyces cerevisae
17 mutagenicity in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test
18 dna damage and repair unscheduled dna synthesis mammalian cells in vitro
19 sister chromatid exchange assay in vitro
20 sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila melanogaster

21 in vitro mammalian cell transformation test
22 rodent dominant lethal test
23 mammalian spermatogonial chromosome aberration test
24 mouse spot test
25 mouse heritable translocation
26 sub-chronic oral toxicity test. Repeated dose 90-day toxicity study in rodents
27 sub-chronic oral toxicity test: repeated dose 90-day toxicity study in non-rodents
28 sub-chronic dermal toxicity test: 90-day repeated dermal dose study using rodent species
29 sub-chronic inhalation toxicity test: 90-day repeated inhalation dose study using rodent species
30 chronic toxicity test
31 teratogenicity test rodent and non-rodent
32 carcinogenicity test
33 combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity test
34 one-generation reproduction toxicity test
35 two generation reproduction toxicity test
36 toxicokinetics
37 delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphorus substances following acute exposure
38 delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphorus substances 28 day repeated dose study
39 unscheduled dna synthesis (uds) test with mammalian liver cells in vivo
40 skin corrosion (in vitro)
41 phototoxicity in vitro 3t3 nru phototoxicity test
42 skin sensitisation: local lymph node assay
43 neurotoxicity study in rodents

chemical weathering
 chemical weathering

chemical weathering is caused by rain water reacting with the mineral grains in rocks to form new minerals (clays) and soluble salts. These reactions occur particularly when the water is slightly acidic.

These chemical processes need water, and occur more rapidly at higher temperature, so warm, damp climates are best.It means that soil formation is faster under tropic klimate compared to moderate or cold climate.

Chemical weathering (especially hydrolysis and oxidation) is the first stage in the production of soils.
There are different types of chemical weathering, the most important are:

Solution - removal of rock in solution by acidic rainwater. In particular, limestone is weathered by rainwater containing dissolved CO2, (this process is sometimes called carbonation).

Hydrolysis - the breakdown of rock by acidic water to produce clay and soluble salts.

Oxidation - the breakdown of rock by oxygen and water, often giving iron-rich rocks a rusty-coloured weathered surface.

chemically not modified substance, REACH
 chemically not modified substance, REACH
chemicals management
 chemicals management

the management of chemical substances and products during their whole life time, from design up to and including disposal at the end of their life, in such a way that all optimal balance is obtained between acceptable risk and maximum benefit for society in the short, medium and long-term.

chemisorption
 chemisorption
chimney-stack
 chimney-stack
chip
 chip
chlorasol
 chlorasol

chloralose, (R)-1,2-O-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)-α-D-glucofuranose, is an avicide, rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in neuroscience and veterinary medicine as an anesthetic and sedative. It has a toxicological mode of action based on acute CNS depressant effects causing sedation, ataxia and respiratory depressant effects.

Chemically, it is a chlorinated acetal derivative of glucose.

It is listed in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC. In 2014 it is under classification and labelling under the European CLP (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008). It is proposed to be classifed as acute humane toxicant, category 4, and acutely and chronically toxic to the aquatic ecosystem, classified as category 1.

For more information, see: http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/eb2d7641-2be5-4aa9-bb27-512d40ff472b

chlorinated aliphatics
 chlorinated aliphatics
chlorinated aromatics
 chlorinated aromatics

a collective term for chlorinated derivatives of benzene, toluene, phenol, naphthalene and bi-phenyl and other compounds containing at least one benzene ring. Chlorinated aromatics are widely used as intermediates in the manufacture of medicines, agricultural chemicals and paints.

chlorinated paraffins
 chlorinated paraffins

chlorinated paraffins are chemicals manufactured by chlorination of liquid n-paraffin or paraffin wax. The largest application for chlorinated paraffins is as a plasticiser and flame retardant in flexible PVC. They are also used as plasticisers in paint, sealants and adhesives. Higher chlorine content grades are used as flame retardants in a wide range of rubbers and polymer systems. Another major outlet for chlorinated paraffins is in the formulation of metalworking lubricants where they have long been recognised as one of the most effective additives for lubricants used in a wide range of machining and engineering operations. Finally, they are used in leather formulations.

chlorinated solvents
 chlorinated solvents

chlorinated solvents are chloride containing organic liquids which have the power to dissolve organic substances and materials.Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene), and methylene chloride are the main solvents in this group. Due to their non-flammability, these compounds have been widely used for cleaning metals in the electronics industry and for dry cleaning of clothes. The use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane was phased out at the end of 1995 under the Montreal Protocol.

chlorine
 chlorine

chlorine is a greenish yellow gas on normal temperature and pressure. At -34°C it turns to a liquid. It is the eleventh most common element in the earth's crust and is widespread in nature. Chlorine is a key building block of modern chemistry and used in three principal ways: direct use (e.g. to disinfect water); as a raw material for chlorine-containing products (e.g. plastics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides) and as an intermediate to manufacture non-chlorinated products.

chlorine-respiration based soil remediation
 chlorine-respiration based soil remediation
chloro-fluorocarbon
 chloro-fluorocarbon
fully halogenated hydrocarbons, called also freons; their production and use are restricted because of ozone depleting effect. For the definition see CFC’s

chlorobenzenes
 chlorobenzenes

chlorobenzenes are a group of cyclic aromatic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms of the benzene ring have been replaced by a chlorine atom. The generic molecular formula is C6H6–nCln, where n = 1–6. There are 12 different chlorinated benzenes: monochlorobenzene (MCB), dichlorobenzene (DCB) (three isomers), trichlorobenzene (TCB) (three isomers), tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) (three isomers), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and hexachlorobenzene. MCB, 1,2-DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,2,4-TCB are colourless liquids, while all other congeners are white crystalline solids at room temperature. The solubility of chlorobenzenes in water is low (decreasing with increasing chlorination), flammability is low, the octanol/water partition coefficients are moderate to high (increasing with increasing chlorination), and vapour pressures are low to moderate (decreasing with increasing chlorination).
They are used mainly as intermediates in the synthesis of pesticides and other chemicals; 1,4-dichlorobenzene is used in space deodorants and as a moth repellent. The higher chlorinated benzenes have been used as components of dielectric fluids.
Clorobenzenes other than hexachlorobenzene have low or moderate toxicity to human, and t
he risk of chlorinated benzenes causing harm to aquatic and terrestrial organisms is considered to be low too.
Their physicochemical properties suggest that chlorobenzenes released to the environment are likely to be volatilized to the atmosphere. The Henry’s law constants measured for chlorobenzenes suggest that they are readily volatilized, especially from aquatic systems with long residence times, such as large lakes and oceans. However, chlorobenzenes released to water may also be adsorbed onto sediment, especially if it is rich in organic matter. Volatilization from soil is also likely, although, depending on the characteristics of the soil, there may also be sorption to soil. The most important factor affecting the behaviour and fate of chlorobenzenes in soil is sorption. adsorption–desorption processes in soil affect the rate of volatilization and leaching and the availability of chemicals to microbial and chemical degradation or uptake by plants or other organisms. The soil sorption coefficients for chlorobenzenes range from 466 to 58 700 and generally increase with increasing chlorination. sorption of chlorobenzenes to soil is affected by many parameters, and it increases with increasing organic matter content.
chlorobenzenes in soil, sediment, and sewage sludge can be degraded by microorganisms. The major mechanism of aerobic degradation is via oxidative dechlorination, usually initiated by dioxygenative hydroxylation, leading to the formation of hydroxylated aromatic compounds (mainly catechols), which undergo ring fission and subsequent mineralization to carbon dioxide and water. The less chlorinated benzenes are more readily degraded than the higher chlorinated ones. biodegradation under anerobic conditions has also been reported, although this occurs at a slower rate than aerobic biodegradation.
They are accumulated by water and terrestrial organisms, mainly in the fat tissue or in the liver of higher organisms.

chloroform
 chloroform

chloroform is produced by the chlorination of methane (CHCl3), and is used as an intermediate in the production of refrigerants, agrochemicals and fluoropolymers. It is no longer used as an anaesthetic.

chlorophenols
 chlorophenols

chlorophenols are derivatives of phenols that contain one or morecovalenly bonded chlorine atoms. Most chlorophenols have a number of different isomer. Monochlorophenols have three isomers because there is only chlorine atom which can occupy one of three ring positions on the phenol molecule; dichlorophenols have 4, trichlorophenols: 6, tetrachlorophenols: 3, and pentachlorophenols only one.
In the past, it has been used as a herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, algaecide, disinfectant and as an ingredient in antifouling paint. Some applications were in agricultural seeds (for nonfood uses), leather, masonry, wood preservation, cooling tower water, rope and paper mill system.
Since the early 1980s, the purchase and use of PCP in the U.S has not been available to the general public. Nowadays most of the PCP is restricted to the treatment of utility poles and railroad ties.

chromatid-type aberration
 chromatid-type aberration

structural chromosome damage expressed as breakage of single chromatids or breakage and reunion between chromatids.

chromatogram
 chromatogram

the resultant electrical output of sample components passing through a detection system following chromatographic separation. A chromatogram may also be called a trace. The chromatogram gives qualitative and quantitative information on the sample.

chromatographic fingerprint
 chromatographic fingerprint

representation of the composition of a substance from the characteristic distribution of constituents in an analytical chromatogram.

chromatography
 chromatography

chromatography is a separation method based on the difference in interactions between the components of the sample dissolved in a fluid phase (gas or liquid) and the stationary phase. The driving force of the transport between the phases is the difference in chemical potential. The retention in the stationary phase (partition) depends on the interactions of the molecules, ions, atoms of the sample. As a consequence, their average velocity will be different, and they leave the stationary phase separated. The separated components are detected based on their physical or chemical properties. The stationary phase can be solid or liquid. The mobil phase can be gas, supercritical fluid or liquid. Depending on the mobil phase the chromatographic techniques are classified as gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. (Source: Balla J.: Analytical applications of gas chromatography. Budapest, 1987) All of these chromatographic techniques are widely used for characterization of various mixtures, e.g. environmental samples in site assessment, technology monitoring, etc.

chromosome-type aberration
 chromosome-type aberration

structural chromosome damage expressed as breakage, or breakage and reunion, of both chromatids at an identical site.

chronic risk
 chronic risk
chrysotile
 chrysotile

Chrysotile is a sheet silicate which is formed as a very thin rolled sheet. The sheet is about 8 angstoms thick (0.8 nanometers thick). It is composed of a sandwich of magnesium and silica. In the lung, the acid environment of the macrophage scavenger cell quickly breaks apart the sheet structure causing the fiber to decompose into small pieces. These pieces can then be readily cleared from the lung. If the fiber is swallowed and ingested it is attacked by the even stronger acid environment (hydrochloric acid, PH 2) in the stomach.

Chrysotile has been known for over 2000 years, being used initially for cremation cloths, oil lamp wicks and other textiles. But, it is only in the 19th Century that Chrysotile was first mined commercially in the Urals (Russia), Italy and Canada.

This is in contrast to the amphibole asbestos fibers which are formed as solid rods/fibers. The structure of an amphibole is a double chain of silicate tetrahedral which makes it very strong and durable. The external surface of the crystal structures of the amphiboles is quartz-like, and has the chemical resistance of quartz. The amphibole fibers have negligible solubility at any pH that might be encountered.

All these fibres are non-flammable. The major difference between chrysotile and amphiboles is related to its chemical composition, its acid-resistant properties and its effects on health. In contrast with amphiboles, chrysotile does not persist in the lungs after inhalation; it is quickly eliminated by the body. A prolonged exposure to high concentrations of chrysotile fibres is required for a clinical manifestation of pulmonary damage to appear. In the past, such high exposures were frequent; it is no longer the case today. On the other hand, because of their toxicity and their high biopersistence, amphiboles are mainly responsible for mesothelioma and pulmonary diseases even caused after a short or moderate exposure.

Today, chrysotile is the only asbestos fibre commercialized. The industry now only markets dense and non-friable materials in which the chrysotile fibre is encapsulated in a matrix of either cement or resin. These products include chrysotile cement building materials, friction materials, gaskets and certain plastics.

Chrysotile was used in the manufacturing of some 3000 products in the past. The reality today is simpler, but there is still a significant variety of common-day and industrial uses of chrysotile containing products. For example, chrysotile fibre is used in roof sealants, textiles, plastics, rubbers, door seals for furnaces, high temperature caulking, paper, components for the military and the nuclear industry.

Restriction in use of chrysotile is under discussion under REACH in Europe in 2014.

Source: http://chrysotile.com/en/chrysotile/overview/default.aspx

chryzene
 chryzene
CICAD
 CICAD

Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD). Concise documents that provide summaries of the relevant scientific information concerning the potential effects of chemical substances on human health and the environment; published by the IPCS (WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety).

circulation wells
 circulation wells

circulating wells (CWs) provide a technique for subsurface remediation by creating a three-dimensional circulation pattern of the ground water. Ground Water is drawn into a well through one screened section and is pumped through the well to a second screened section where it is reintroduced to the aquifer. The flow direction through the well can be specified as either upward or downward to accommodate site-specific conditions. Because ground water is not pumped above ground, pumping costs and permitting issues are reduced and eliminated, respectively. Also, the problems associated with storage and discharge are removed. In addition to ground water treatment, CW systems can provide simultaneous vadose zone treatment in the form of bioventing or soil vapor extraction.

CW systems can provide treatment inside the well, in the aquifer, or a combination of both. For effective in-well treatment, the contaminants must be adequately soluble and mobile so they can be transported by the circulating ground water. Because CW systems provide a wide range of treatment options, they provide some degree of flexibility to a remediation effort.

Source: US-EPA, Clu-In: http://www.clu-in.org/techfocus/default.focus/sec/Ground-Water_Circulating_Wells/cat/Overview/

CIRFS, Europen Man-made Fibres Association
 CIRFS, Europen Man-made Fibres Association

CIRFS: European Man-Made Fibres Association is the representative body for the European man-made fibres industry.

Europe is the world’s second largest producer of man-made fibres – an essential raw material for many other industries, ranging from textiles to aerospace, from baby diapers to renewable energy. It is a global leader in quality, innovation and sustainability. For more information about man-made fibres, their uses and their advantages.

CIRFS was founded in 1950, as the Comité International de la Rayonne et des Fibres Synthétiques (from which the abbreviation CIRFS is derived). It took on its present name in 2009.

Publications for information on CIRFS in Chinese, Czech, French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Turkish.

CIRFS monitors economic developments which affect the man-made fibres industry, including developments in international trade and the internal European market. It provides information and guidance to members on the possible effects, and prepares papers for use in contacts with the European Union and national governments.

It has an extensive data collection and market analysis system, providing essential market information for its members on trends in the man-made fibres industry.

For most of the principal fibres, CIRFS collects and distributes regular data on production and sales volumes.

It analyses import and export data for almost 70 countries.

It collects available data on production trends for man-made fibres in countries outside Europe.

CIRFS publishes (in electronic form) a yearly Guide to Man-made Fibre Statistics. Go to Publications to find more details and place an order.

Man-made fibres account for 68% of all fibres produced worldwide, and for 82% in Europe, including Turkey.

World production was 58.6 million tonnes in 2012. European production was 4.6 million tonnes. For further data on world man-made fibres production, click World Man-Made Fibres Production.

Their principal end-use is in clothing, carpets, household textiles and a wide range of technical products - tyres, conveyor belts, fillings for sleeping bags and cold-weather clothing, filters for improving the quality of air and water in the environment, fire-resistant materials, reinforcement in composites used for advanced aircraft production, and much else. Fibres are precisely engineered to give the right combination of qualities required for the end-use in question: appearance, handle, strength, durability, stretch, stability, warmth, protection, easy care, breathability, moisture absorption and value for money, for example. In many cases, they are used in blends with natural fibres such as cotton and wool.

Man-made fibres come in two main forms: continuous filament, used for weaving, knitting or carpet production; and staple, discontinuous lengths of fibre which can be spun into yarn or incorporated in unspun uses such as fillings or nonwovens.

Source: http://www.cirfs.org

citoplasm
 citoplasm

the cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the contents of the cell nucleus are not part of the cytoplasm and are instead called the nucleoplasm. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm contains organelles, such as mitochondria, Golgi, lysosomes and spherosomes. The cell organelles are filled with liquid that is kept separate from the rest of the cytoplasm by biological membranes. The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways like glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. The inner, granular mass is called the endoplasm and the outer, clear and glassy layer is called the cell cortex or the ectoplasm.

The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell. The cytosol is a gel, with a network of fibers dispersed through water. Due to this network of pores and high concentrations of dissolved macromolecules, such as proteins, an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.

(Crowding occurs since these high concentrations of macromolecules reduce the volume of solvent available for other molecules in the solution, which has the result of increasing their effective concentrations. This crowding effect can make molecules in cells behave in radically different ways than in test-tube assays. Consequently, measurements of the properties of enzymes or processes in metabolism that are made in the laboratory in dilute solutions may be different by many orders of magnitude from the true values seen in living cells. The study of biochemical processes under realistically crowded conditions is very important, since these conditions are a ubiquitous property of all cells and crowding may be essential for the efficient operation of metabolism.)

Source: Wikipedia

civil and environmental relationship
 civil and environmental relationship
CLARINET Project
classification and labelling
 classification and labelling
classification and labelling of chemicals
 classification and labelling of chemicals

classification and labelling includes the evaluation of the hazard of a substance or preparation in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC (substances) and 1999/45/EC (preparations) and a communication of that hazard via the label.
Classification is the process in which a given substance or preparation is assigned one of the 15 categories of danger depending on their intrinsic properties in accordance with the criteria for specified in directive 67/548/EEC. If the substance is not found to be dangerous, according to the said criteria, then it is not classified. Under GHS the substance or preparation will be assigned to hazard classes.
This evaluation must be made for any substance or preparation manufactured, imported or placed on the EU market for any tonnage level.
The classification of the substance and preparations as being dangerous is based on one or several endpoints concerning physical-chemical properties, health or environmental effects.

Currently, substances can be classified according to the following 15 categories:
  • explosive substances and preparations
  • oxidising substances and preparations
  • extremely flammable substances and preparations
  • highly flammable substances and preparations
  • flammable substances and preparations
  • very toxic substances and preparations
  • toxic substances and preparations
  • harmful substances and preparations
  • corrosive substances and preparations
  • irritant substances and preparations
  • sensitising substances and preparations
  • carcinogenic substances and preparations
  • mutagenic substances and preparations
  • substances and preparations which are toxic for reproduction
  • substances and preparations which are dangerous for the environment

Under REACH, any manufacturer or importer of a substance (regardless of quantity) will be required to submit all its classifications to the Agency, to be included in the classification and labelling Inventory. Classifications must be submitted by 1 December 2010 if the substance is put on the market and is either classified as dangerous (no tonnage threshold) or subject to registration.
The classification has to be included in all registration dossiers.
Classifications should also be communicated in the notifications which are required for substances for research and development (PPORD) and substances in articles.
The classification and labelling inventory is a database maintained by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) containing the classification of all substances submitted either in registration dossiers or in notification of classification and labelling, including in PPORD notifications. Information from this inventory, which includes substance name and classification and labelling is made publicly available in accordance with the provisions of Article 119 of the REACH Regulation.

Source: REACH Glossary, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:1999:200:0001:0068:EN:PDF

classification and labelling of chemicals: short explanation
 classification and labelling of chemicals: short explanation

The CLP Regulation (Classification, Labelling and Packaging) ensures that the hazards presented by chemicals are clearly communicated to workers and consumers in the European Union through classification and labelling of chemicals.

Before placing chemicals on the market, the industry must establish the potential risks to human health and the environment of such substances and mixtures, classifying them in line with the identified hazards. The hazardous chemicals also have to be labelled according to a standardised system so that workers and consumers know about their effects before they handle them.

As a result of this process, the hazards of chemicals are communicated through standard statements and pictograms on labels and safety data sheets. For example, when a supplier identifies a substance as "acute toxicity category 1 (oral)", the labelling will include the hazard statement "fatal if swallowed", the word "Danger" and a pictogram with a skull and crossbones.

The CLP Regulation entered into force in January 2009, and the method of classifying and labelling chemicals it introduced is based on the United Nations' Globally Harmonised System (GHS).

The Regulation replaces over time two previous pieces of legislation, the Dangerous Substances Directive and the Dangerous Preparations Directive. There is a transition period until 2015.

Source: http://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/regulations/clp/understanding-clp

classification in LCA
 classification in LCA
classification of soil remediation technologies
 classification of soil remediation technologies
classification, LCIA
 classification, LCIA

classification is the first step of an impact assessment and is the process of assigning inventory outputs into specific environmental impact categories.

classification, packaging, labelling, 1999/45/EC
 classification, packaging, labelling, 1999/45/EC

1999/45/EC directive on classification, packaging, labellingis the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 May 1999, concerning the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations.

classisfication of chemical substances
 classisfication of chemical substances

classification is the process in which a given substance or preparation is assigned one of the 15 categories of danger depending on their intrinsic properties in accordance with the criteria for specified in directive 67/548/EEC. If the substance is not found to be dangerous, according to the said criteria, then it is not classified. Under GHS the substance or preparation will be assigned to hazard classes.

See also labelling of chemical substances and GHS.

(Source: REACH)

clay
 clay

clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained minerals, which show plasticity through a variable range of water content, and which can be hardened when dried and/or fired. Clay deposits are mostly composed of clay minerals (phyllosilicate minerals), minerals which impart plasticity and harden when fired and/or dried, and variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure by polar attraction.

Clay minerals are typically formed over long periods of time by the gradual chemical weathering of silicate rocks.

Clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by their grain-size. The grain size of clay-minerals are close to the colloidal size-range. Geologists and soil scientists usually consider 2 µm and under, sedimentologists often use 4-5 μm and under, and colloid chemists use 1 μm border line. Geotechnical engineers measure the plasticity properties of the soil to indentify clay-content and its geotechnical consequences (Atterberg limits). See also soil texture.

clay minerals
 clay minerals

clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths and other cations. Clay minerals are common weathering products (including weathering of feldspar) and low temperature hydrothermal alteration products. Clay minerals are very common in fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone and siltstone and in fine grained metamorphic slate and phyllite.

Clays are ultra fine grained (normally considered to be less than 2 micrometres in size on standard particle size classifications) and so require special analytical techniques. Standards include x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction methods, various spectroscopic methods such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and EDS or energy dispersive spectroscopy. These methods should always augment standard polarized light microscopy, a technique which is sometimes overlooked but often where fundamental occurrences or petrologic relationships are established.

Clays are fundamentally built of tetrahedral sheets and octahedral sheets. A 1:1 clay would consist of one tetrahedral sheet and one octahedral sheet, and examples would be kaolinite and serpentine. A 2:1 clay consists of an octahedral sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets, and examples are illite, smectite, attapulgite, and chlorite (although chlorite has an external octahedral sheet often referred to as "brucite").

Clay minerals include the following groups:

  • Kaolin group which includes the minerals kaolinite, dickite, halloysite and nacrite. Some sources include the serpentine group due to structural similarities (Bailey 1980).
  • Smectite group which includes dioctahedral smectites such as montmorillonite and nontronite and trioctahedral smectites for example saponite.
  • Illite group which includes the clay-micas. Illite is the only common mineral.
  • Chlorite group includes a wide variety of similar minerals with considerable chemical variation.
  • Other 2:1 clay types exist such as sepiolite or attapulgite, clays with long water channels internal to their structure.

Mixed layer clay variations exist for most of the above groups. Clay minerals in soil have an important role in bonding both nutrients and pollutants.

Sorce: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay_minerals

clean matrix spike
 clean matrix spike

clean matrix spike is a sample with no detectable analyte concentration to which an analyte spike has been added.

ClientEarth
 ClientEarth

An Europen organization of activist lawyers committed to securing a healthy planet.

Vision: an Earth where people can achieve their full potential within a diverse, resilient biosphere.

Mission: we use law as a tool to mend the relationship between human societies and the Earth. We work in Europe and beyond, bringing together law, science and policy to create practical solutions to key environmental challenges.

Values:

Possibility. The belief that societies’ relationship with the natural world can and must be changed, and that law is an appropriate and effective tool to do so.

Strategy. A strategic vision which offers practical solutions.

Boldness. The audacity, courage, passion and resolve to challenge the status quo – to promote, defend and ultimately gain acceptance for new ideas.

The power of law. Between the strong and the weak only law can level the playing field.

Creativity. The freedom, time, trust and tools to allow entrepreneurial thinking and development of novel ideas and approaches to problems.

Adaptability. The nimbleness to seize opportunities as they arise, consistent with our strategic vision.

Transparency, participation, collaboration. Openness and involvement in decision making collaboration with colleagues and with other organisations.

Source: www.clientearth.org

climate change
 climate change

the term "climate change" is used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. Sometimes, climate change is used synonymously with the term global warming; scientists however tend to use the term in the wider sense to also include natural changes in climate.

clinical toxicology
 clinical toxicology

clinical toxicology is concerned with diseases and illnesses associated with short term or long term exposure to toxic chemicals. Forensic toxicology is based on the cause and effect relationships between exposure to a drug or chemical substance and the toxic or lethal effects that result in.

cloning
 cloning

cloning is a in vitro DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single gene or other segment of DNA, even a whole genom to obtain enough material for further study or application.

The resulting cloned (copied) collections of DNA molecules are called clone libraries.

A second type of cloning exploits the natural process of cell division to make many copies of an entire cell, containing a gene or another segment of DNA or the whole genom.

The genetic makeup of these cloned cells, called a cell line, is identical to the original cell.

A third type of cloning produces complete, genetically identical organisms, microorganisms, plants or animals such as the famous Scottish sheep, Dolly.

close space, noise
 close space, noise
closed airspace
 closed airspace
Clostridium
 Clostridium

Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the Firmicutes. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores. Individual cells are rod-shaped.

There are four main species responsible for disease in humans:

C. botulinum, an organism producing a toxin in food/wound that causes botulism. Honey sometimes contains spores of Clostridium botulinum, which may cause infant botulism in humans one year old and younger. The bacteria produce botulinum toxin, which eventually paralyzes the infant's breathing muscles. Adults and older children can eat honey safely, because the clostridia do not compete well with the other rapidly growing bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract.

C. difficile, can overgrow other bacteria in the gut during antibiotic therapy and cause pseudomembranous colitis.

C. perfringens, formerly called C. welchii, causes a wide range of symptoms, from food poisoning to gas gangrene. Also responsible for enterotoxemia (also known as "overeating disease" or "pulpy kidney disease") in sheep and goats. C. perfringens also takes the place of yeast in the making of salt rising bread.

C. tetani, the causative organism of tetanus.

C. sordellii has been linked to the deaths of more than a dozen women after childbirth.

Clostridium is sometimes found in raw swiftlet birds' nests, a Chinese delicacy. Nests are washed in a sulfite solution to kill the bacteria before being imported to the U.S.

Neurotoxin production is the unifying feature of the species C. botulinum.

As therapy, passive immunisation with human anti-tetanospasmin immunoglobulin or tetanus immunoglobulin is crucial. If specific anti-tetanospasmin immunoglobulin is not available, then normal human immunoglobulin may be given instead. All tetanus victims should be vaccinated against the disease or offered a booster shot.

Many clostridium stains are utilised by industry and commerce.

C. thermocellum can utilize lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in ethanol production. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, reducing cooling cost.

C. acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, was first used by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone and biobutanol from starch in 1916 for the production of gunpowder and TNT.

The anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.

Fatty acids are converted by yeasts to long-chain dicarboxylic acids and then to 1,3-propanediol using Clostridium diolis.

Genes from C. thermocellum have been inserted into transgenic mice to allow the production of endoglucanase. The experiment was intended to learn more about how the digestive capacity of monogastric animals could be improved. Hall et al. published their findings in 1993.

Non-pathogenic strains of clostridia may help in the treatment of diseases such as cancer. Research shows that clostridia can selectively target cancer cells. Some strains can enter and replicate within solid tumours. Clostridia could, therefore, be used to deliver therapeutic proteins to tumours. This use of Clostridia has been demonstrated in a variety of preclinical models.

Source: Wikipedia

CLP Regulation
 CLP Regulation

the CLP Regulation (for "Classification, Labelling and Packaging") is a European Union regulation which aligns the European Union system of classification, labelling and packaging chemical substances and mixtures to the Globally Harmonised System (GHS). It is expected to facilitate global trade and the harmonised communication of hazard information of chemicals and to promote regulatory efficiency. It complements the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation (EC No 1907/2006) and replaces the current system contained in the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC).

1272/2008 regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.This Regulation says, that is should ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment as well as the free movement of chemical substances, mixtures and certain specific articles, while enhancing competitiveness and innovation.

The regulation incorporates the classification criteria and labelling rules agreed at UN level, the so called Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). It introduces new classification criteria, hazard symbols (pictograms) and labelling phrases, while taking account of elements which are part of the current EU legislation.

The regulation requires companies to appropriately classify, label and package their substances and mixtures before placing them on the market. It aims to protect workers, consumers and the environment by means of labelling which reflects possible hazardous effects of a particular chemical. It also takes over provisions of the REACH Regulation regarding the notification of classifications, the establishment of a list of harmonised classifications and the creation of a classification and labelling inventory.

Harmonised classification (legal classification) results from the inclusion into the list of substances in Annex VI of the CLP Regulation (formerly Annex I Directive 67/548/EEC).

Full text of the regulation: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:353:0001:1355:EN:PDF

Club of Rome
 Club of Rome

it was founded in April 1968 and raised considerable public attention in 1972 with its report The Limits to Growth. The club states that its mission is "to act as a global catalyst for change through the identification and analysis of the crucial problems facing humanity and the communication of such problems to the most important public and private decision makers as well as to the general public." Since 1 July 2008, the organization has its headquarters in Winterthur, Switzerland.

See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Club_of_Rome

CMR, REACH
 CMR, REACH

chemical substances with carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic effect to reproduction. The abbreviation of CMR is used for the characterisation of chemical substances with these properties. Consequences and obligations of being CMR are given by REACH.

CMS, IT
 CMS, IT

Content Management System

co-metabolism based bioremediation
 co-metabolism based bioremediation
co-metabolism, co-oxidation
 co-metabolism, co-oxidation
co-oxidation
coagulation
 coagulation
coal
 coal

a black or brownish black solid, combustible carbon-rich substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. Coal is one of the most important of the primary fossil fuels. It constitutes humankind’s main source of energy.

coal tar
 coal tar

coal tar and coal tar oil are principal liquid products resulting from the carbonisation of coal, what means the heating of coal in the absence of air at temperatures ranging from about 900º to 1,200ºC (1,650º to 2,200ºF). Many commercially important compounds are derived from coal tar, such as dyestuffs and pigments.

coast protection
 coast protection
coast protective waterwork
 coast protective waterwork
coastal water
 coastal water

urface water on the landward side of a line, every point of which is at a distance of one nautical mile on the seaward side from the nearest point of the baseline from which the breadth of territorial waters is measured, extending where appropriate up to the outer limit of transitional waters.

COD
 COD
coli bacterium
 coli bacterium
coli-number
 coli-number
coli-titre
 coli-titre
COLIPA, Cosmetics Europe
 COLIPA, Cosmetics Europe

Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association has been the voice of Europe’s EUR 70 billion (excluding exports) cosmetic, toiletry and perfumery industry since 1962.

As the industry’s European trade association, Cosmetics Europe's membership consists of:

  • 16 active international companies
  • 27 active national associations
  • 4 supporting association members
  • 3 supporting corporate members
  • 3 correspondent members

Cosmetics Europe represents the interests of more than 4000 companies, ranging from major international cosmetics manufacturers to small, family-run businesses operating in niche markets. In 2011, direct and indirect employment in the European cosmetics industry was approximately 1.7 million people.

The products that come within the scope of Cosmetics Europe extend across a divers range that includes essential personal hygiene products such as deodorant, shampoo and toothpaste as well as beauty preparations.

More than 5 billion personal hygiene items are sold every year. Virtually everyone in Europe will use at least one such product, such as soap or toothpaste, every day. The average consumer spends the same amount on cosmetics as they spend on bread.

Decisions to buy and use cosmetics are closely linked to lifestyle. This makes research and development vital to the cosmetics industry as manufacturers respond to increasingly sophisticated consumer demand.

The membership of Cosmetics Europe is committed to continuing development of safe, innovative and effective products. Its mission is to meet consumer desires for new and enhanced products and to provide useful, more comprehensive product information.

The Association will held: 2014 Global Scientific Regulatory Conference “Cosmetics at the Crossroads of Science and Regulation” 10 – 11 June 2014 | The Square | Brussels, Belgium

Programme topics:

  • Trends and challenges in safety assessment and regulation for cosmetics
  • Public-private partnership in research for alternative methods to Animal Testing
  • The EU Cosmetics Regulation and future developments
  • Legal responsibilities in the value chain
  • Global trends in cosmetics regulation

Source: https://www.cosmeticseurope.eu/

collembola
 collembola
colloid
 colloid
colorimetric methods
 colorimetric methods
traditional methods for analysis of elements or compounds using specific reactions which give colored products. For instance, the Fe(II) ions give a pink colored complex with o-phenanthroline. The color intensity is proportional to the concentration of the element, compound to be measured. The colorimetric methods are very often used even nowadays although they lack the low detection limit characteristic of modern instrumental methods such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

combined sewer system
 combined sewer system
common flood-control works
 common flood-control works
common technical specification
 common technical specification

common technical specification is a technical specification drawn up in accordance with a procedure recognized by the Member States with a view to uniform application in all Member States and published in the Official Journal of the European Communities.

Source: Council Directive 93/38/EEC of 14 June 1993 coordinating the procurement procedures of entities operating in the water, energy, transport and telecommunications sectors.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31993L0038:EN:HTML

common wastewater treatment plant
 common wastewater treatment plant
common water conveyance
 common water conveyance
community
 community
Competent Authority (CA)
 Competent Authority (CA)
Mcompetent authority means the authority or authorities or bodies established by the Member States to carry out the obligations arising from REACH Regulation. (Source: REACH Glossary)
Competent Authority (CA), REACH
 Competent Authority (CA), REACH
complex substances
 complex substances
component
 component

substance intentionally added to form a preparation (Source: REACH)

component of chemicals
 component of chemicals

under REACH 'component' is an individual chemical substance in a mixture of chemicals or in a product.

Source: REACH

component, REACH
 component, REACH

substance intentionally added to form a preparation.

(Source: REACH)

composite sample
 composite sample

composite sample is a combination of multiple individual samples taken at pre-selected times to represent the integrated composition of the wastewater being sampled. Usually all samples added to the composites are equal in size, but flow-proportional composite samples collect amounts proportional to flow.

composite sample, environmental analysis
 composite sample, environmental analysis

is a combination of multiple individual samples taken at pre-selected times to represent the integrated composition of the environmental compartment being sampled. Usually all samples added to the composites are equal in size. When sampling waters or wastewaters flow-proportional composite samples collect amounts proportional to flow.

composting
 composting

Composting as a recognized practice dates to at least the early Roman era since Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79) who refers to compost in his writings. Traditionally, composting was to pile organic materials until the next planting season, at which time the materials would be ready for soil application. The main advantage of this method is that little working time or effort is required from the composter and it fits in naturally with agricultural practices in temperate climates. Disadvantages (from the modern perspective) are that space is used for a whole year, some nutrients might be leached due to exposure to rainfall, and disease producing organisms, some weed, weed seeds and insects may not be adequately controlled.

Composting was somewhat modernized beginning in the 1920s in Europe as a tool for organic farming.The first industrial station for the transformation of urban organic materials into compost was set up in Wels/Austria in the year 1921 The early personages most cited for propounding composting within farming are for the German-speaking world Rudolf Steiner, founder of a farming method called biodynamics, and Annie Francé-Harrar, who was appointed on behalf of the government in Mexico and supported the country 1950–1958 to set up a large humus organization in the fight against erosion and soil degradation. In the English-speaking world it was Sir Albert Howard who worked extensively in India on sustainable practices and Lady Eve Balfour who was a huge proponent of composting.

There are many modern proponents of rapid composting which attempt to correct some of the perceived problems associated with traditional, slow composting. Many advocate that compost can be made in 2 to 3 weeks.Many such short processes involve a few changes to traditional methods, including smaller, more homogenized pieces in the compost, controlling carbon to nitrogen (CN) ratio at 30 to 1 or less, and monitoring the moisture level more carefully. However, none of these parameters differ significantly from early writings of Howard and Balfour, suggesting that in fact modern composting has not made significant advances over the traditional methods which take a few months to work. For this reason and others, many modern scientists who deal with carbon transformations are sceptical that there is a "super-charged" way to get nature to make compost rapidly. They also point to the fact that it is the structure of the natural molecules - such as carbohydrates, proteins, and cellulose - that really dictate the rate at which microbial-mediated transformations are possible.

Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compost

computer virus
 computer virus
CONCAWE
 CONCAWE

European Oil Company Organization for Environment, Health and Safety.

CONCAWE was established in 1963 by a small group of leading oil companies to carry out research on environmental issues relevant to the oil industry. Its membership has broadened to include most oil companies operating in Europe.
The scope of CONCAWE’s activities has gradually expanded in line with the development of societal concerns over environmental, health and safety issues. These now cover areas such as fuels quality and emissions, air quality, water quality, soil contamination, waste, occupational health and safety, petroleum product stewardship and cross-country pipeline performance.

The main objectives of CONCAWE are:

  • To acquire pertinent scientific, economic, technical and legal information on environmental, health and safety issues relating to the refining of crude oil and the distribution and use of petroleum products.
  • To communicate the findings in order to improve understanding of these issues by all stakeholders including the industry, authorities and the public at large.

CONCAWE endeavours to conduct its activities with objectivity and scientific integrity. In the complex world of environmental and health science, CONCAWE seeks to uphold three key principles: sound science, transparency and cost-effectiveness.

CONCAWE recognises that the potential solutions to the complex environmental, health and safety challenges of the 21st century require the combined efforts of many parties. CONCAWE is thus engaged in a wide range of partnerships and maintains contacts with other industry sector associations, as well as international organisations. It has observer status at UNECE (United Nations Economic Council for Europe), OSPAR Commission (for the protection of the marine environment of the north-east Atlantic) and the WHO (World Health Organization), and contributes to all EU Commission initiatives relevant to its field of activity.

Source: https://www.concawe.eu/

concentration
 concentration
concentration-effect curve
 concentration-effect curve
concentration-effect relationship
 concentration-effect relationship

relationship between the exposure, expressed in concentration, of a given organism, system or (sub) population to an agent in a specific pattern during a given time and the magnitude of a continuously-graded effect to that organism, system or (sub) population.

Related terms: effect assessment, dose-response relationship

Source: ENV/JM/MONO(2003)15 Descriptions of Selected Key Generic Terms Used In Chemical Hazard/Risk Assessment.www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocument/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO%282003%2915&docLanguage=En

condensation
 condensation
confined water
 confined water
conservation status of a natural habitat
 conservation status of a natural habitat

conservation status of a natural habitat is the sum of the influences acting on a natural habitat and its typical species that may affect its long-term natural distribution, structure and functions as well as the long-term survival of its typical species within the territory referred to in Article 2. The conservative status of a natural habitat will be taken as "favourable" when its natural range and areas it covers within that range are stable or increasing, and the specific structure and functions which are necessary for its long-term maintenance exist and are likely to continue to exist for the foreseeable future, and the conservation status of its typical species is favourable as defined in 92/43.

Source: Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31992L0043:EN:html

conservation status of a species
 conservation status of a species

conservation status of a species means the sum of the influences acting on the species concerned that may affect the long-term distribution and abundance of its populations within the territory referred to in Article 2;

The conservation status will be taken as "favourable" when:

- population dynamics data on the species concerned indicate that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its natural habitats, and

- the natural range of the species is neither being reduced nor is likely to be reduced for the foreseeable future, and

- there is, and will probably continue to be, a sufficiently large habitat to maintain its populations on a long-term basis.

Source: Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31992L0043:EN:html

Consotia under REACH
 Consotia under REACH

REACH requires that manufacturers/importers of the same substance cooperate jointly in preparing a submission, by sharing data and costs. Consortia are an efficient form of cooperation for potential registrants of a substance or group of substances to fulfil the REACH requirements in time.

ReachCentrum manages a large number of REACH consortia. ReachCentrum Consortium Management Services are designed for companies preparing, forming and operating REACH consortia. A good management practice is able to simplify the processes of forming and maintaining REACH consortia with the focus on meeting the REACH registration deadlines in time and cost efficiently.

constitution
 constitution

a constitution is a set of fundamental principles according to which a state or other organization is governed.

Constitution and the Environment-relationship
 Constitution and the Environment-relationship
Constitutional Court
 Constitutional Court
construction noise or vibration source
 construction noise or vibration source
contaminant attenuation
 contaminant attenuation

a process whereby contaminants are managed, removed, or reduced in concentration. Attenuation may be accomplished naturally under certain conditions.

contaminant hydrology
 contaminant hydrology
the study of the environmental fate and transport of antropogenic chemicals in groundwater (Source: EUGRIS)
contaminant, pollutant
 contaminant, pollutant
contaminant-phase
 contaminant-phase

separate liquid phase of a non-water-soluble organic contaminant in surface and subsurface waters, sediments and soils.

contaminants transformation in living organisms
 contaminants transformation in living organisms
contaminants uptake by living organisms
 contaminants uptake by living organisms
contaminated leachate treatment
 contaminated leachate treatment
contaminated site
 contaminated site
contaminated site risk
 contaminated site risk
contamination limit value
 contamination limit value

treshhold concentration of chemical substances, which poses unacceptable risk in environmnetal compartment, food or cosmetics, etc. Limit values of environmental compartments depend on their use.

contamination of surface waters
 contamination of surface waters

contaminant concentration or level in the surface waters on the effect of discharge of contaminants or contaminating agents into surface waters.

content of environmental toxicity test standards
 content of environmental toxicity test standards
control sample
 control sample

control sample is a sample with pre-determined characteristics which undergoes sample processing identical to that carried out for test samples and that is used as a basis for comparison with test samples. Examples of control samples include reference materials, spiked test samples, method blanks, dilution water (as used in toxicological testing), and control cultures (i.e., samples of known biological composition).

control site sample
 control site sample

control site sample, also known as “background sample”. These are samples of the media similar to the test sample matrix and are taken near to the time and place where the analytes of interest may exist at background levels. Usually the frequency of their analysis should be equivalent to that of the reagent blank. They are used to demonstrate whether the site is contaminated or truly different from the norm. Some sort of background sample is always necessary for a valid scientific comparison of samples suspected of containing environmental contaminants. Control site samples may further be differentiated as “local control site” and “area control sites” samples.

conventional energy
 conventional energy

The "conventional" energy modalities are those that mainstream science acknowledges as legitimate, such as solar, wind, geothermal, tide, waste-to-energy, and biomass.

An alphabetic list is given below with links to detailed description:

  1. Animal-Powered
  2. BetaVoltaics
  3. BioElectricity
  4. Biomass/Biofuels
  5. Conservation
  6. Fuel Efficiency
  7. Geothermal (Turbine)
  8. Geothermal (Mass)
  9. Human-Powered
  10. Hydroelectric (Dam)
  11. Hydrogen
  12. Nuclear / Fusion
  13. Ocean Current
  14. Ocean Thermal
  15. Ocean Tide
  16. Ocean Vents
  17. Ocean Wave
  18. Piezoelectric
  19. Run-of-the-River
  20. Salt-Fresh-Water Mix (Blue)
  21. Solar (Photovoltaic/Thermal)
  22. Thermal Electric/Thermionic
  23. Vibrations
  24. Waste-to-Energy
  25. Wind

See also non-conventional energy in MOKKA Glossary!

Source: http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:_Conventional_and_Exotic_%22Free_Energy%22_Genres

Copper (Cu)
 Copper (Cu)
CORINE Project
 CORINE Project
corrective action in environmental management
 corrective action in environmental management

corrective action in environmental management means the process, when failure occurs, of investigation, correction and institution of preventative measures to preclude the recurrence of failure. An important component of corrective action is documentation of both problem and remedial measures taken.

corrosion
 corrosion
corrosion of metals
 corrosion of metals

materially damaging, or even destroying metals by chemical action of a substance or a mixture. The corrosion resistance of metals and alloys is a basic property related to the easiness with which these materials react with a given environment.

Most common corrosion is a natural electrochemical process, that seeks to reduce the binding energy in metals. In the presence of oxigen the end result of corrosion involves a metal atom being oxidised, whereby it loses one or more electrons and leaves the bulk metal.

Corrosion of metals can be a chemical process or a biological process, as well as the combination of the two.

Some metals are more intrinsically resistant to corrosion than others, either due to the fundamental nature of the electrochemical processes involved or due to the details of how reaction products form. The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavorable. Any corrosion products of gold or platinum tend to decompose spontaneously into pure metal, which is why these elements can be found in metallic form on Earth, and is a large part of their intrinsic value. Some metals have naturally slow reaction kinetics, even though their corrosion is thermodynamically favorable. These include such metals as zinc, magnesium, and cadmium: their corrosion is very slow. Metals, such as iron are very reactive, and corrosive in the presence of oxigen.

Microbial corrosion, is caused or promoted by microorganisms, usually chemoautotrophs. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are common in lack of oxygen; they produce hydrogen sulfide, causing sulfide stress cracking. In presence of oxygen, some bacteria directly oxidize iron to iron oxides and hydroxides, other bacteria oxidize sulfur and produce sulfuric acid causing biogenic sulfide corrosion. Concentration cells can form in the deposits of corrosion products, causing and enhancing galvanic corrosion.

The prevention of metals from corrosion may happen by passivation, coating, cathodic protection, or by using corrosion inhibitors, which are chemical compounds that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a metal or and alloy.

Indirectly biocides also are abel to prevent metal corrosion by killing the microorganisms responsible for it.

corrosive substances
 corrosive substances

a corrosive substance is one that will destroy or irreversibly damage another substance with which it comes in contact. The main hazards to people include damage to eyes, skin and tissue under the skin, but inhalation or ingestion of a corrosive substance can damage the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. A low concentration of a corrosive substance is usually an irritant. In the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) both rapid corrosion of metals and chemical corrosion of skin qualify for the "corrosive" symbol.
Common corrosive chemicals are classified into:
Acids, bases, dehydrating agents, strong oxidizers, electrophilic halogenes, organic halides and organic acid halides, acid anhydrides, alkylating agents, some organic materials, like phenol.
(Source: Wikipedia)

cosmetics
 cosmetics

cosmetics and additives to cosmetics is an important group of chemicals substances because they directly effect human body, eye, skin or the metabolism, such as hormone and immune-system. The European Directive defines cosmetics as follows: a “cosmetic product” shall mean any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odors and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition. The products to be considered as cosmetic products within the meaning of this definition are listed in Annex I of the Directive. Other Annexes enlist coloring agents, preservatives and UV -filters, which can be applied. Cosmetic products containing chemical substances hazardous for health should be excluded from marketing. The lists of these substances are also given in different Annexes of the Directive.

Source: Council Directive of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products (76/768/EEC): http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1976L0768:20080424:en:PDF

Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC
 Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC

the European Directive defines cosmetics as follows: a “cosmetic product” shall mean any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and
external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition.
The products to be considered as cosmetic products within the meaning of this definition are listed in Annex I of the Directive. Other Annexes enlist colouring agents, preservatives and UV -filters, ehich can be applied.
Cosmetic products containing chemical substances hazardous for health should be excluded from marketing. The list of these substances are also given in different Annexes of the Directive.

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1976L0768:20080424:en:PDF

cosolvent
 cosolvent
cost-benefit assessment
 cost-benefit assessment
cost-efficiency assessment of environmenatl remediation
 cost-efficiency assessment of environmenatl remediation
coulometry
 coulometry
determines the amount of analyte by measuring the amount of charge (current and time) required to complete reaction. It is named after C. A. Coulomb (1736-1806) French physicist who described the force between electric charges. The unity of charge is 1 coulomb, the amount of electric charge transported in 1 second by a steady state current of 1 ampere. There are two basic categories of coulometric techniques. Potentiostatic coulometry involves holding the electric potential constant during the reaction. The other, called coulometric titration or amperostatic coulometry, keeps the current (measured in amperes) constant. The methods are suitable for trace analysis. The most well known application is Karl Fischer titration for determination of water content and adsorbable organic halide content (AOX, EOX, POX). In these methods iodine and Ag+, respectively generated electrolytically are used for the titration.

Cr) (Chromium
 Cr) (Chromium
cracker, IT
 cracker, IT
cracker, IT2
 cracker, IT2
critical parameters of wastes, HU legislative term
 critical parameters of wastes, HU legislative term
critical review in LCA
 critical review in LCA
crust
 crust
Crustacea
 Crustacea
CSIRO
 CSIRO

CSIRO = Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia

CSTEE
 CSTEE

Comité Scientifique de Toxicologie, Ecotoxicologie et l'Environnement /European Scientific Committee on toxicity, ecotoxicity and Environment (http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sct/sct_en.htm)

One of the scientific committees of the European Union, dealing with scientific and technical questions relating to examination of the toxicity and ecotoxicity of chemical, biochemical and biological compounds whose use may have harmful consequences for human health and the environment.

custom area
cut-off rule, LCA
 cut-off rule, LCA
cyanobacteria
 cyanobacteria
cyanocobalamin
 cyanocobalamin

cyanocobalamin is an especially common vitamer of the vitamin B12 family. It is chemically air-stable, easy to crystallize and therefore to purify after it is produced by bacterial fermentation. A form of B12 called hydroxocobalamin is produced by bacteria, and then changed to cyanocobalamin in the process of being purified in activated charcoal columns after being separated from the bacterial cultures. Cyanide is naturally present in activated charcoal, and hydroxocobalamin, which has great affinity for cyanide, picks it up and is changed to cyanocobalamin. Thus, the cyanocobalamin form of B12 is the most widespread in the food industry.

This fact has caused some people (usually from reading labels on packages and vitamin supplements, in which vitamin B12 is almost always listed last, since ingredients by law are listed in order of weight percentage), to infer that the correct chemical name of vitamin B12 actually is cyanocobalamin. In fact, vitamin B12 is the name for a whole class of chemicals with B12 activity, and cyanocobalamin is only one of these. Cyanocobalamin usually does not even occur in nature, and is not one of the forms of the vitamin which is directly used in the human body (or that of any other animal). However, animals and humans can convert cyanocobalamin to active (cofactor) forms of the vitamin, such as methylcobalamin. This process happens by equilibration, as cyanocobalamin slowly loses its cyanide in surroundings that contain no cyanide.

Cyanocobalamin is usually prescribed for the following reasons: after surgical removal of part, or all of the stomach or intestine to ensure there are adequate levels of vitamin B12 in the bloodstream; to treat pernicious anemia; vitamin B12 deficiency due to low intake from food; thyrotoxicosis, hemorrhage, malignancy, liver or kidney disease. Cyanocobamide is also used to perform the Schilling test to check a person's ability to absorb vitamin B12.

Sourece: Wikipedia

cycloalkane
 cycloalkane
a class of alkanes, saturated hydrocarbons that are in the form of a ring. For example, cyclohexane consists of a ring of 6 carbon atoms coupled by single bonds (C6H12).

cyclodextrin
 cyclodextrin

cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosacharides produced from starch. The most well known representatives are built up from 6, 7, or 8 glucopyranose units called alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins. The hydroxyl groups located at the rim of the ring ensure good water solubility. The inner side of these ring-shaped molecules is rather hydrophobic resulting in inclusion complex forming ability: guest molecules of poor solubility can enter the cavity of the host cyclodextrins. The solubility of the poorly soluble guest molecules is usually improved by complex formation. This solubilizing effect can be observed especially for the cyclodextrin derivatives of high solubility, like hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and random methylated cyclodextrin (RAMEB). Both are produced on ton scale. Pharmaceutical excipients and food additives. They are non-toxic. The alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrins can be consumed without any restrictions, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for beta-cyclodextrin is 0.5 mg/kg, that is a person of 50 kg can consume 25 mg a day. The environmental application of cyclodextrins is based on their complex forming ability towards most of the organic contaminants. For example, the contaminants having low solubility, high Kow and high sorption to the soil (that is low bioavailability) will show improved availability on the effect of cyclodextrin complexation. The efficiency of the remediation technologies especially that of the bioremediation technologies can be enhanced by cyclodextrins as additives. cyclodextrins, as environmentally friendly materials can substitute the harmful tensides.

Cyclodextrin Technology
 Cyclodextrin Technology
abbreviated as CDT, a bioremediation technology utilizing cyclodextrin (more exactly random methylated beta-cyclodextrin) for improving the bioavailablitity of the organic contaminants e.g. hydrocarbons, PAHs, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the soil. The time saving by the cyclodextrin-intensified bioremediation may compensate for the higher price of the technology. Further details can be found in MOKKA database (sheets No. 51 and 175). Further literature: Gruiz, K.; Fenyvesi, E.; Kriston, E.; Molnar, M.; Horvath, B. (1996) J. Inclusion Phenom. Mol. Recognit. Chem. 25(1-3), 233-236, Leitgib, L.; Gruiz, K.; Fenyvesi, E.; Balogh, G.; Muranyi, A. (2008) Science of the Total Environment, 392(1), 12-21

cyclone dust collector
 cyclone dust collector
cycloparaffin
 cycloparaffin
saturated hydrocarbons of ring structure (see cycloalkane)

cymoxanil
 cymoxanil

Chemical Name: 2-cyano-N-[(ethylamino)carbonyl]-2-(methoxyimino) acetamide
Common Name: Cymoxanil
Trade Name: Curzate 60 DF
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number: 57966-95-7
Pesticide Type: Fungicide

Cymoxanil is applied as a seed treatment to cut potato seed pieces or as a foliar application to the plants to control late blight (Phytophthora infestans). The end-use product, Curate 60 DF is formulated as a 60% dry flowable formulation. Curate 60 DF is to be used only in combination (tank mixed) with other protectant fungicides such as mancozeb, chlorothalonil, triphenyltin hydroxide, or metiram. As a seed treatment, the product is applied by dipping the 2 seed pieces in a concentrated slurry or by mist seed treating equipment.

Acute Toxicity: The acute toxicity data show that this chemical is not acutely toxic by the oral, inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure.
Subchronic Toxicity: In a subchronic oral study in mice, the NOEL was 8.25 mg/kg/day for males and 11.3 mg/kg/day for females. In a subchronic oral toxicity in dogs, a NOEL was not established and the LOEL was 3 mg/kg/day. In a subchronic oral toxicity/neurotoxicity study in rats, the NOEL was 47.6 mg/kg/day in males and 59.9 mg/kg/day for females. In a 28 day dermal toxicity study, the NOEL was 1000 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested).
Chronic Toxicity: In a combined chronic/carcinogenicity study, the NOEL was 4.08 mg/kg/day for males and 5.36 mg/kg/day of females. In a chronic toxicity study in dogs, the NOEL was 5.7 mg/kg/day for males and 3.1 mg/kg/day for females.
Carcinogenicity: Cymoxanil showed no evidence of carcinogenic potential and was classified as a “Not Likely” carcinogen.
Developmental Toxicity: In a prenatal developmental toxicity study in rats, the maternal and developmental NOEL was 10 mg/kg/day. In a prenatal developmental toxicity study in rabbits, the maternal and developmental NOEL was  16 mg/kg/day. In another prenatal developmental toxicity study in rabbits, the maternal and developmental NOEL was 4 mg/kg/day.
Reproductive Toxicity: In a two-generation reproduction study in rats, the parental systemic NOEL was 100 ppm (6.5 mg/kg/day for males and 7.9 mg/kg/day for females) and the offspring NOEL was 100 ppm.
Neurotoxicity: In the neurotoxicity portion of the subchronic/neurotoxicity study in rats, the NOEL for neurotoxicity was 224 mg/kg/day for males and 333 mg/kg/day for females. In the combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats, sciatic nerve axon/myelin degeneration was reported in females at dose levels of 30.3 and 90.1 mg/kg/day and hyperactivity and aggressiveness were reported in males at 30.3 and 90.1 mg/kg/day. In the carcinogenicity study in mice, absolute brain weight was decreased in both sexes at 216/298 mg/kg/day and 446/582 mg/kg/day for males/females. No evidence of developmental anomalies of the fetal nervous system were observed in the prenatal developmental toxicity studies in either rats, or rabbits, at maternally toxic oral doses up to 25 and 32 mg/kg/day. In addition, there was no evidence of behavioral or neurological effects on the offspring in the two-generation reproduction study in rats.
Mutagenicity: Gene mutation assays in bacterial and mammalian cells, a mouse micronucleus assay and an in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rats were negative. An in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis assay-primary rat hepatocytes and a chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes assay were positive. However, the negative results from the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay support the lack of carcinogenic effect in the rat and mouse longterm feeding study.


Reference Dose: The Reference Dose (RfD) for cymoxanil is 0.013 mg/kg/day. This value is based on the NOEL of 4.08 mg/kg/day from a chronic feeding study in rats. The Uncertainty Factor of 300 was used to account for interspecies extrapolation, intraspecies variation and the enhanced sensitivity of infants and children.

Classified based on the Globally Harmonised System (GHS):

  • Acute Tox 4, H302
  • Skin Sens 1A, H317
  • STOT RE Cat 2, H373
  • Repr. Cat 2, H361d
  • Aquatic Acute 1, H400, M=1
  • Aquatic Chronic 2, H411

Source: http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/cymoxanil.pdf

D-value: site specific remedial target value of the Hungarian soil regulation
 D-value: site specific remedial target value of the Hungarian soil regulation

it is a risk based target concentration for contaminated sites and contaminates soils. The Hungarian low requires the calculation of this target concentration in the remedial plan. The D-value is land-use specific.

dagerous substances, classification and labelling
Dalton
 Dalton

the unified atomic mass unit or Dalton (Da), named after the famous chemist John Dalton.  it is a unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. Per definitionem the atomic mass unit is one twelfth (1/12) of the mass of an isolated atom of carbon-12 (12C) at rest and in its ground state, consequently a single atom of carbon-12 has a mass of 12 Da. The relationship between the atomic mass unit (Da) and the gram (g) is: 1g = 6,022 141 79 x 1023 Da.

dangerous ambient noise
 dangerous ambient noise
dangerous environmental vibration
 dangerous environmental vibration
Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)
 Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)

The Dangerous Substances Directive (as amended) is one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety. It was made under Article 100 (Art. 94 in a consolidated version ) of the Treaty of Rome. By agreement it is also applicable in the EEA, and compliance with the Directive will ensure compliance with the relevant Swiss laws.

The Directive applies to pure chemicals and to mixtures of chemicals (preparations) that are placed on the market in the European Union, therefore it does not apply directly to substances created purely for research purposes. Additional rules concerning preparations are contained in the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) , these are very similar to the rules contained in the Dangerous Substances Directive 67/548/EEC.

Art. 2 of the Directive lists the classes of substances or preparations that are considered to be dangerous. Some, but not all, of these classes are associated with a chemical hazard symbols and/or a code.

  • Explosives (E)
  • Oxidizers agents (O)
  • Flammable substances or preparations, classified as extremely flammable (F+), highly flammable (F)
  • Toxic substances or preparations, classified as very toxic (T+) or toxic (T)
  • Harmful substances or preparations (Xn)
  • Corrosive substances or preparations (C)
  • Irritants (Xi)
  • Sensitizers
  • Carcinogens (Carc.), classified into three categories
  • Mutagenic (Mut.), classified into three categories
  • Substances or preparations that are reprotoxic (toxic for reproduction) (Repr.), classified into three categories
  • Substances or preparations that are dangerous for the environment (N)

Substances or preparations falling into one or more of these classes are listed in Annex I of the Directive, which is regularly updated. A public database of substances listed in Annex I of the Directive is maintained by the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection.

The Directive does not apply to the following groups of substances and preparations (Art. 1):

The Directive does not apply to the transport of dangerous substances or preparations.

The danger symbols are defined in Annex II of the directive. A consolidated list with translations into other EU languages can be found in Directive 2001/59/EC.

The standard phrases are defined in Annexes III and IV of the Directive. Annex III defines phrases relating to the Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as R-phrases (R-phrases). Annex IV defines phrases relating to Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations, often referred to as S-phrases (S-phrases).

The appropriate standard phrases must appear on the packaging and label of the product and on its MSDS. Annex I specifies the standard phrases to be used for substances that are listed there: these are obligatory.

The lists of standard phrases were last updated in 2001, and Directive 2001/59/EC provides a consolidated list in all EU languages.

Labelling: (Arts. 23-25). In general, the label on the packaging of a dangerous substance or preparation must clearly indicate the following items: the name of the substance; (for substances listed in Annex I, the name indicated must be one of those listed in the Annex (many substances appear in the Annex under different synonyms): otherwise, the name should be "internationally recognized")

Art. 27 of the Directive imposes an obligation on suppliers to provide an MSDS, on paper or electronically, at or before the first delivery of a dangerous substance or preparation. The supplier is also obliged to inform users of any relevant new information which becomes known. Directive 2001/58/EC provides detailed guidance for the preparation of material safety data sheets.

  • the name, full address and telephone number of the person or company which has placed the substance on the market (manufacturer, importer or distributor);
  • the danger symbols, if any;
  • the standard phrases, if any; (certain exemptions are permitted)
  • the EINECS number or equivalent;
  • for substances listed in Annex I, the words EEC label.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangerous_Substances_Directive_%2867/548/EEC%29

Daphnia
 Daphnia
Daphnia acute toxicity test
 Daphnia acute toxicity test

the purpose of acute Daphnia test is to determine the median effective concentration for immobilization (EC50) of a substance to Daphnia in fresh water. It is desirable to have, as far as possible, information on the water solubility, vapour pressure, chemical stability , dissociation constants and biodegradability of the substance before starting the test.

Additional information (for instance structural formula, degree of purity, nature and percentage of significant impurities, presence and amount of additives, and n-octanol/water partition coefficient) should be taken into consideration in both the planning of the test and interpretation of the results.

A limit test may be performed at 100 mg per litre in order to demonstrate that the EC50 is greater than this concentration. The Daphnia are exposed to the test substance added to water at a range of concentrations for 48 hours.

If a shorter test is used, justification should be given in the test report.

Under otherwise identical test conditions, and an adequate range of test substance concentrations, different concentrations of a test substance exert different average degrees of effect on the swimming ability of Daphnia. Different concentrations result in different percentages of Daphnia being no longer capable of swimming at the end of the test. The concentrations causing zero or 100 % immobilization are derived directly from the test observations whereas the 48-hour EC50 is determined by calculation if possible.

Source: http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Testing-Methods/ANNEXV/C02web1992.pdf

Daphnia chronic toxicity test
 Daphnia chronic toxicity test
Data Quality Objectives (DQO)
 Data Quality Objectives (DQO)

Data Quality Objectives (DQO) are qualitative and quantitative statements derived from the DQO process describing the decision rules and the uncertainties of the decision(s) within the context of the problem(s).

DQO process is a quality management tool that enables planners to focus their planning efforts by specifying the use of the data (the decision), the decision criteria (action level) and the decision maker’s acceptable decision error rates. The products of the DQO process are the DQOs.

data storage, EUGRIS
 data storage, EUGRIS

environmental data storage is the process of managing environmental data so that it can be extracted and used in the most efficient manner.

(Source: EUGRIS)

database
 database
DDD
 DDD
DDE
 DDE
DDR SDRAM, IT
 DDR SDRAM, IT

Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

DDR2, IT
 DDR2, IT
DDT
 DDT
dead channel
 dead channel
DECHEMA
 DECHEMA

German Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology is a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has more than 5,500 private and institutional members, among them scientists, engineers, companies, organisations and institutes.

One aim of DECHEMA is to promote and support research and technological progress in Chemical Technology and Biotechnology DECHEMA regards itself as interface between science, economy, state and public.

decibel2
 decibel2

a unit used to express relative difference on power, usually between acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two level.

Read more:

http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/dB.htm

deciduous wood
 deciduous wood
decision support systems and tools in environmental management
 decision support systems and tools in environmental management
decision support tools
 decision support tools
a document or software produced with the aim of supporting decision making, i.e. something that carries out a process in decision support. (Source: EUGRIS)
deflation (wind-erosion)
 deflation (wind-erosion)

wind-erosion (deflation) is the detachment and transport of fine solid particles (soil, sediment or rock) by wind action. Its stages are detachment, abrasion, deposition and accumulation of the transported material. The extent of wind erosion depends on the wind velocity, wind direction, texture and organic matter content of the surface layer, soil moisture and relief. The areas mostly exposed to wind erosion are the arid environments such as deserts.The action of the wind in removing material from a surface can result even in lowering that surface below sea level. Most of the dust carried by dust storms is in the form of silt-size particles forming loess deposits. The Glacial loess having a high content of glacially ground flour-like and clay entrained by the wind and then deposited downwind had an important role in the formation of soils in Hungary.

degradation rate constant
 degradation rate constant
DEHPT
 DEHPT

di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

delayed death
 delayed death

delayed death in toxicity testing means that an animal does not die or appear moribund within 48 hours but dies later during the 14-day observation period.

delayed health effect
 delayed health effect

a disease or an injury that happens as a result of exposures that might have occurred in the past.

demolition waste
 demolition waste
demonstration project
 demonstration project
demonstration technology
 demonstration technology
Derived Minimum Effect Level (DMEL)
 Derived Minimum Effect Level (DMEL)
For non-threshold effects, the underlying assumption is that a no-effect-level cannot be established and a DMEL therefore expresses an exposure level corresponding to a low, possibly theoretical, risk, which should be seen as a tolerable risk.(Source: REACH Glossary)
Derived Minimum Effect Level (DMEL), REACH
 Derived Minimum Effect Level (DMEL), REACH

for non-threshold effects, the underlying assumption is that a no-effect-level cannot be established and a DMEL therefore expresses an exposure level corresponding to a low, possibly theoretical, risk, which should be seen as a tolerable risk. (Source: REACH Glossary)

Derived No Effect Level (DNEL)
 Derived No Effect Level (DNEL)
A DNEL is the level of exposure to the substance below which no adverse effects are expected to occur. It is therefore the level of exposure to the substance above which humans should not be exposed. DNEL is a derived level of exposure because it is normally calculated on the basis of available dose descriptors from animal studies such as No Observed adverse effect Levels (NOAELs) or benchmark doses (BMDs). (Source: REACH Glossary)
dermal corrosion
 dermal corrosion

is the production of irreversible damage of the skin; namely, visible necrosis through the epidermis and into the dermis, following the application of a test substance for up to four hours. Corrosive reactions are typified by ulcers, bleeding, bloody scabs, and, by the end of observation at 14 days, by discoloration due to blanching of the skin, complete areas of alopecia, and scars. Histopathology should be considered to evaluate questionable lesions.

dermal irritation
 dermal irritation

is the production of reversible damage of the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours.

dermal irritation ans corrosion test
 dermal irritation ans corrosion test

The testing method is described by OECD TG 404 (2002).

This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to liquid or solid test substance by dermal application. This Test Guideline recommends sequential testing strategies, which include the performance of validated and accepted in vitro or ex vivo tests for corrosion/irritation.

The albino rabbit is the preferable laboratory animal. The substance to be tested is applied in a single dose to a small area of skin (approximately 6cm²) of an experimental animal; untreated skin areas of the test animal serve as the control. The exposure period is 4 hours. Residual test substance should then be removed. The dose is 0.5ml (liquid) or 0.5g (solid) applied to the test site. The method consists of two tests: the initial test and the confirmatory test (used only if a corrosive effect is not observed in the initial test). All animals should be examined for signs of erythema and oedema during 14 days. The dermal irritation scores should be evaluated in conjunction with the nature and severity of lesions, and their reversibility or lack of reversibility. When responses persist to the end of the 14-day observation period, the test substance should be considered an irritant.This updated method gives special attention to possible improvements in relation to animal welfare concerns and to the evaluation of all existing information on the test substance in order to avoid unnecessary testing in laboratory animals.

This method includes the recommendation that prior to undertaking the described in vivo test for corrosion/irritation of the substance, a weight-of-the-evidence analysis be performed on the existing relevant data. Where insufficient data are available, they can be developed through application of sequential testing. The testing strategy includes the performance of validated and accepted in vitro tests and is provided as an Annex to this method. In addition, where appropriate, the successive, instead of simultaneous, application of the three test patches to the animal in the initial in vivo test is recommended.

Source: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-404-acute-dermal-irritation-corrosion_9789264070622-en

dermal toxicity
 dermal toxicity

for acute dermal toxicity testing the test substance is applied to the skin in graduated doses to several groups of experimental animals, one dose being used per group. Subsequently, observations of effects and deaths are made. Animals which die during the test are necropsied and at the conclusion of the test surviving animals are necropsied.

Animals showing severe and enduring signs of distress and pain may need to be humanely killed. Dosing test substances in a way known to cause marked pain and distress due to corrosive or irritating properties need not be carried out.

desertification
 desertification

desertification means land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities;

Combating desertification includes activities which are part of the integrated development of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas for sustainable development which are aimed at:

  • prevention and/or reduction of land degradation;
  • rehabilitation of partly degraded land;
  • reclamation of desertified land.

UNCCD, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa joins forces and actions all over the world.

See also: http://www.unccd.int/convention/text/convention.php

design water pollution
 design water pollution
detection limit
 detection limit

the lowest concentration of a chemical that can reliably be distinguished from a zero concentration.

detection limit (MDL)
 detection limit (MDL)

MDL = Method Detection Limit,the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the analyte concentration is greater than zero and is determined from analysis of a sample in a given matrix containing the analyte.

detection limit in chemical analysis
 detection limit in chemical analysis

in analytical chemistry, the detection limit is the lower limit of detection, or LOD (limit of detection), is the lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance (a blank value) within a stated confidence limit (generally 1%). The detection limit is estimated from the mean of the blank, the standard deviation of the blank and some confidence factor. Another consideration that affects the detection limit is the accuracy of the model used to predict concentration from the raw analytical signal.

There are a number of different "detection limits" that are commonly used. These include the instrument detection limit (IDL), the method detection limit (MDL), the practical quantification limit (PQL), and the limit of quantification (LOQ). Even when the same terminology is used, there can be differences in the LOD according to nuances of what definition is used and what type of noise contributes to the measurement and calibration.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detection_limit

detergents
 detergents
deteriorative trend (groundwater)
 deteriorative trend (groundwater)
Deutsche Industrie Norm (German Standard)
 Deutsche Industrie Norm (German Standard)
device with mixed firing
 device with mixed firing
DG TAXAUD
 DG TAXAUD
diabetes
 diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - often simply referred to as diabetes - is a condition in which a person has a high blood sugar (glucose) level as a result of the body either not producing enough insulin, or because body cells do not properly respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas which enables body cells to absorb glucose, to turn into energy. If the body cells do not absorb the glucose, the glucose accumulates in the blood (hyperglycemia), leading to various potential medical complications.

diagenesis
 diagenesis

in geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. These changes happen at relatively low temperatures and pressures and result in changes to the rock's original mineralogy and texture. The boundary between diagenesis and metamorphism, which occurs under conditions of higher temperature and pressure, is gradational.

diesel oil
 diesel oil
portion of crude oil that distills out within the temperature range of approximately 200-360°C. A general term covering oils used as fuel in diesel and other compression ignition engines. Typical contaminant at fuel stations and garages, relatively easily biodegradable by the soil microflora.

dietetics
 dietetics

the aim of dietetics is topromote good health through proper eating. The dietitian supervise the preparation and service of food, develop modified diets, participate in research, and educate individuals and groups on good nutritional habits. In a medical setting, a dietitian may provide specific artificial nutritional needs to patients unable to consume food normally.

different forms of organic pollutants in soil
 different forms of organic pollutants in soil
diffuse pollution
 diffuse pollution
diffuse pollution source
 diffuse pollution source
diffusion climatology
 diffusion climatology
DIFPOLMINE Project
 DIFPOLMINE Project
diffuse pollution of Mining Origin
digestive enzymes
 digestive enzymes

digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body. Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tract of animals (including humans) where they aid in the digestion of food as well as inside the cells, especially in their lysosomes where they function to maintain cellular survival.

Digestive enzymes are diverse and are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands, in the stomach secreted by cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the intestinal (small and large) secretions, or as part of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

Digestive enzymes are classified based on their target substrates:

  • Proteases and peptidases split proteins into their monomers, the amino acids.
  • Lipases split fat into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule.
  • Carbohydrases split carbohydrates such as starch and sugars into simple sugars such as glucose.
  • Nucleases split nucleic acids into nucleotides.

In the human digestive system, the main sites of digestion are the oral cavity, the stomach, and the small intestine. Digestive enzymes are secreted by different exocrine glands including:

  • Salivary glands
  • Secretory cells in the stomach
  • Secretory cells in the pancreas
  • Secretory glands in the small intestine
digital
 digital
Digital Europe
 Digital Europe

DIGITALEUROPE is the voice of the European digital technology industry, which includes large and small companies in the Information and Communications Technology and Consumer Electronics Industry sectors. It is composed of major multinational companies and national associations from European countries. In all, DIGITALEUROPE represents more than 10,000 companies all over Europe with more than 2 million employees and over EUR 1,000 billion in revenues.

Given the increasingly global nature of the Digital Technology Industry, DIGITALEUROPE’s activities, including consideration of membership, cover Europe in a geographic sense, including EU accession countries, EU accession candidate countries and non EU countries.

The work of Digital Europe focuses:

  1. Creating the best European policy climate and helping European policymakers support us to create jobs and growth
  2. Delivering on our vision - practical programmes that can help make our vision a reality and
  3. Leadership for change - our 'C' level programme for real change

Source: http://www.digitaleurope.org/

dilution (waste-water)
 dilution (waste-water)
dioxin, dioxins
 dioxin, dioxins

the term "dioxin" is commonly used to refer to a family of chemicals that share chemical structures and characteristics. These compounds include polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), which are unwanted by-products of industrial and natural processes, usually involving combustion. Dioxins are listed as Persistent Organic Pollutants by the Stockholm Convention.

direct abstraction from surface water
 direct abstraction from surface water
direct contact toxicity tests
 direct contact toxicity tests
direct discharge into groundwater
 direct discharge into groundwater

discharge of pollutants into groundwater without percolation throughout the soil or subsoil.

direct discharge into surface water
 direct discharge into surface water
direct discharge into the geological medium
 direct discharge into the geological medium
direct space
 direct space
direct sub-basin of the Danube
 direct sub-basin of the Danube
directing factor in noise protection
 directing factor in noise protection
Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affair (DG-SANCO)
 Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affair (DG-SANCO)
discharge into surface waters
 discharge into surface waters

discharge according to 76/464/EGK regulation means the introduction into the waters referred to in paragraph 1 of any substances in List I or List II of the Annex, with the exception of:
- discharges of dredgings,
- operational discharges from ships in territorial waters,
- dumping from ships in territorial waters.

List I:

1. organohalogen compounds and substances which may form such compounds in the aquatic environment,

2. organophosphorus compounds,

3. organotin compounds,

4. substances in respect of which it has been proved that they possess carcinogenic properties in or via the aquatic environment

5. mercury and its compounds,

6. cadmium and its compounds,

7. persistent mineral oils and hydrocarbons of petroleum origin,

8. persistent synthetic substances which may float, remain in suspension or sink and which may interfere with any use of the waters.

List II:

1. The following metalloids and metals and their compounds: Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Te, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn,

2. Biocides and their derivatives not appearing in List I.

3. Substances which have a deleterious effect on the taste and/or smell of the products for human consumption derived from the aquatic environment,

and compounds liable to give rise to such substances in water.

4. Toxic or persistent organic compounds of silicon, and substances which may give rise to such compounds in water, excluding those which are biologically harmless or are rapidly converted in water into harmless substances. (1)Where certain substances in list II are carcinogenic, they are included in category 4 of this list.

5. Inorganic compounds of phosphorus and elemental phosphorus.

6. Non persistent mineral oils and hydrocarbons of petroleum origin.

7. Cyanides, fluorides.

8. Substances which have an adverse effect on the oxygen balance, particularly : ammonia, nitrites.

Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31976L0464:EN:HTML

disinfectants
 disinfectants

disinfectants are used against harmful bacteria and fungi. From the chemical point of view disinfectants belong to strong oxidizers or reductants, acidic or alkaline substances, solvents or surfactants. Most widely used chemical substances are the followings: active chlorine containing compounds, such as hypochlorites, chloramines, chlorine dioxide etc.);
active oxygen containing substances, such as peroxides, persulfates, perborates; strong oxidizers, such as ozone and permanganate solutions; iodine (Betadine); alcohols, most frequently 70% ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, phenolic substances such as pure phenol, cresols hexachlorophene, pentachlorophenol. Surfactants, such as some quaternary ammonium cations or chlorhexidine, can also be used as disinfectants. The use of heavy metals, such as silver, mercury and copper is restricted due to their environmental and human hazard. Concentrated strong acids (phosphoric, nitric, sulfuric, amidosulfuric, toluenesulfonic acids) and alkalis (sodium, potassium, calcium hydroxides),
such as of pH < 1 or > 13, particularly under elevated temperature (above 60°C), effectively kills bacteria and other microbes.

dispersion
 dispersion

a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition.

A micellar solution consists of a dispersion of micelles in a solvent (most usually water). Micelles consist of aggregated molecules of the material to be dispersed surrounded by detergents (tensides).

dissociation constant
 dissociation constant
ratio of concentrations of dissociated and undissociated forms of a substance in water at equilibrium. In the case of an ionisable organic substance, this data indicates which chemical species will be present at a particular pH (fate and toxicity of the ionised form of a substance may be markedly different from the corresponding neutral molecule). (http://www.prc.cnrs-gif.fr/reach/en/physicochemical_data.html) A physico-chemical parameter required by REACH for materials manufactured or imported in >100 tons/year. In a broader sense a dissociation constant is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions. The dissociation constant is usually denoted Kd and is the inverse of the association constant. A specific form of the dissociation constant is the acid dissociation constant (Ka), which gives the strength of an acid that is its dissociation to H ion and the corresponding anion. Acid dissociation constant is given usually as the negative logarithm of the Ka (-log10Ka or pKa). The study does not need to be conducted if the substance is hydrolytically unstable (half-life less than 12 hours) or is readily oxidisable in water; or - it is scientifically not possible to perform the test for instance if the analytical method is not sensitive enough.

dissolved organic carbon
 dissolved organic carbon
see DOC

dissolved organic sulfur
 dissolved organic sulfur
see DOS

diversity
 diversity
diversity index
 diversity index
DMU, Digital MockUp, IT
 DMU, Digital MockUp, IT

DMU is a concept that allows the description of a product, usually in 3D, for its entire life cycle. Digital Mockup is enriched by all the activities that contribute to describing the product. The product design engineers, the manufacturing engineers, and the support engineers work together to create and manage the DMU. One of the objectives is to have an important knowledge of the future or the supported product to replace any physical prototypes with virtual ones, using 3D computer graphics techniques. As an extension it is also frequently referred to as Digital Prototyping or Virtual Prototyping. These two specific definitions refer to the production of a physical prototype, but they are part of the DMU concept. DMU allows engineers to design and configure complex products and validate their designs without ever needing to build a physical model.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_mockup

Among the techniques and technologies that make this possible are:

the use of light-weight 3D models with multiple levels of detail using lightweight data structures such as JT XVL and PDF allow engineers to visualize, analyze, and interact with large amounts of product data in real-time on standard desktop computers.

direct interface to between Digital Mockups and PDM systems.

active digital mockup technology that unites the ability to visualize the assembly mockup with the ability to measure, analyze, simulate, design and redesign.

DNA
 DNA

deoxi-ribonucleic acid, the chemical substance which encodes the genetic information. A polinucleotide, that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.

Chemically, DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. Within the genes this information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA, in a process called transcription.

Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are duplicated before cells divide, in a process called DNA replication. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. In contrast, prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.

Source: Wikipedia

DNA microinjection
 DNA microinjection

microinjection is a technique for introducing a solution of DNA into a cell using a fine microcapillary pipet.

DNA techniques, environmental application
 DNA techniques, environmental application

biotechnology is the use of biological knowledge for the development of industrial processes, and the production of useful organisms and their products. The manipulation of DNA has led to a range of applications of modern biotechnology techniques. Techniques such as recombinant DNA technology and DNA identification are applied particularly in agriculture and environmental conservation.

In the following we summarise the applications of DNA technology used in natural conservation

Diagnosis:

  • DNA profiles to protect animals in wild
  • captive breeding programs

Curing:

  • control of feral pests
  • bioremediation
DNAPL
 DNAPL

Dense, Nonaqueous Phase Liquid, organic contaminants denser than water and do not dissolve or mix easily with water (immiscible). It forms a separate phase (pools) in water. The pools containing chlorinated aliphatic solvents, chlorinated benzenes and phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated compounds serve as a long-term source for dissolved contaminant plumes. It is usually not easy to locate and identify them. Some of the DNAPL compounds can migrate through the clay layers as well providing a hazard for not only the subsurface waters but for the waters in the deeper layers as well. The following technologies can be used for the treatment: in situ thermal treatment, in situ bioremediation, in situ chemical oxidation = ISCO, application of co-solvents and tenzides to dissolve the ontaminants in the ground water, than pump and treat. Without additives the remediation of DNAPL-contaminated sites by pump and treat technology is time- and cost consuming.

DNEL
 DNEL

Derived No effect Level. For non-threshold effects, the underlying assumption is that a no-effect-level cannot be established and a DNEL therefore expresses an exposure level corresponding to a low, possibly theoretical risk, which should be seen as a tolerable risk. (Source: REACH Glossary)

DOC
 DOC
Dissolved Organic Carbon content in drinking water, surface and subsurface waters, waste waters. The sample is filtered usually using 0.45-micrometer filter and the remaining TOC is the DOC.

docosahexaenoic acid
 docosahexaenoic acid

see omega-3 fatty acids

dopamine
 dopamine

dopamine is a catecholamine type neurotransmitter in the brain. It has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, voluntary movement, motivation, punishment and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation and sexual gratification), sleep, mood, attention, working memory, and learning. Dopaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine) are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, the substantia nigra pars compacta, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

Dopamine can be supplied as a medication that acts on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. However, because dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's disease and dopa-responsive dystonia, L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine;) which is the precursor of dopamine, can be given because it can cross the blood-brain barrier.

DOS
 DOS
dissolved organic sulfur content in waters and waste waters, e.g. mercaptans in petrochemical waste waters. The main steps of determination: (1) sulfate removal using Ba, followed by ion exchange; (2) determination of the nanomolar concentrations of residual sulfate; and (3) reductive pyrolysis (combustion at 1050 C in pure hydrogen) of a treated (as in (1)) sample to quantitatively produce hydrogen sulfide from all forms of sulfur, which is then quantified using GC/flame photometric detection. (Chavous, B., Filippino, K.C., Cutter, G.A. (1997) Determination of Dissolved Organic Sulfur in Seawater, and its Distribution in the Chesapeake Bay. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMED42A0173C)

dosage
&