Zirconium (elemental)

Zirconium (elemental)

Source of the photo: 
http://periodictable.com/Elements/040/index.html
Author of the description: 
Vaszita Emese
Zirconium (elemental)

 

 

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE DATASHEET

 

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION

Chemical name                 

Zirconium (elemental)

Main ions of the substance

zirconium(II): Zr2+ zirconium(III) Zr3+ 

zirconium(IV) Zr4+   [7]

Synonyms                           

Zirconium, ion (Zr4+); Zirconium, ion; Zirconium ion (4+); Zirconium(4+), ion  [1]

IUPAC name

560-633-5 [4]

CAS No

15543-40-5 [2] 7440-67-7 [2, 4]

REACH registration number

 

EC No

231-176-9 [4]

Molecular formula               

 Zr

Substance group/chemical family

Inorganic compounds -> Homogeneous metal compounds [3]

Appearance

Physical state

Odour

Form

Colour

 

solid (at 20°C and 101,3 kPa) [3, 4]

odourless [4]

amorphous powder or lustrous metal [8, 9]

grey-white or  bluish-black [8, 9]

USES AND HANDLING ISSUES

Relevant identified uses

Zirconium, elemental is used as ingredient of priming or explosive mixtures; flashlight powders; as deoxidizer in metallurgy; as "getter" in vacuum tubes; in constructing rayon spinnerets in lamp filaments, flash bulbs, and nuclear reactors. Pure zirconium is being increasingly used as a corrosion-resistant metal in fabricating columns, pumps, pipe, valves, heat exchangers, and tanks for severe chemical environments, particularly sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, except those containing fluorides. In this capacity, it is also used in facilities producing urea, hydrogen peroxide, methyl methacrylate, or acetic acid. [8]

Handling considerations

Avoid contact with the skin and eyes. Avoid impacts and keep away from burning material.
Prevent the formation of dust, powders, chips, etc.
Use only in well-ventilated areas (keeping ventilation to a reasonable level to prevent the accidental spillage of zirconium powder).
Scavenge with an inert gas (argon) when filling.
Never mix zirconium chips or dust with wood, rags, grease, solvents, etc.
Take steps to avoid the build-up of electrostatic charges.
Do not let dust and chips build up except when packaged.
Storage: Store in a dry, well-ventilated area.
Store in argon-inerted containers.
Store in an area protected from bad weather and heat sources and away from incompatible products such as combustible products and oxidising agents. [4]

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular weight                                  

91.224 g/mol  [1, 8, 9]

Bulk density/Specific gravity

6.51 g/cm3 [7]  6.434g/cm3 at 20°C [4]

pH

 

Particle size

Zirconium powder:

D50 76.42 µm, D10 32.64 µm, D90 141.11 µm [4]

EC

 

Melting point

1857 °C [4,9]

Boiling point

4406 °C [8, 10] 3577°C [4]

Flash point

            -

Flammability

Zirconium powder is highly flammable [4]

relative self-ignition temperature: 389 °C [4]

Vapour density

 

Vapour pressure

Approximately 0 mm Hg [8, 10]

Solubility in water

none [4]

Solubility in organic solvents

 

Solubility in inorganic solvents

soluble in hot concentrated acid [8, 10]

Hydrolysis

 

Ionicity in water

 

Surface tension

 

Dispersion properties

 

Specific surface

 

Stability and reactivity

Chemical stability

Stable in normal pressure and temperature conditions. [4]

Reactivity hazards

 

 Corrosivity

corrosion resistant [8, 12]

Polimerization

 

Incompatibility with various substances

Reacts violently with borax and carbon tetrachloride when heated. Reacts explosively with alkali metal hydroxides when heated. [11]  

Water is to be avoided if the substance is burning (explosion risk). [4]

Special remarks on reactivity

Zirconium is a very reactive metal that, in air or   aqueous solution, immediately develops a surface oxide film. [8, 12]

Physical, chemical and biological coefficients

Koc

 

Kow

 

pKa

 

Henry-constant

 

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND BEHAVIOUR

Artificial pollution sources

The use and production of zirconium in the aviation, aerospace, chemical and surgical instrument industries, and in nuclear reactor technology may result in the release of zirconium to the environment through various waste streams. [8, 12]

General terrestrial fate

 

General aquatic fate

 

General atmospheric fate

 

General persistence and degradability

 

Abiotic degradation and metabolites

 

Biodegradation and metabolites

 

Bioconcentration

Bioaccumulation (in aquatic species (algae) Chlorella emersoni) Zirconium dioxide was tested, pH: 5, 23°C
BCF: 0.64 L/kg (body weight) [4]

Volatilization

 

Photolysis

 

Hydrolysis

 

Soil adsorption and mobility

 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

Measured data

soil (Total (ICP-MS): 230 mg/kg [5]

water : 2.6 (μg l-1)[6]

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

General adverse effects on ecosystem

Acute toxicity (LC50, EC50)

Aquatic systems

 

Terrestrial systems

Fish (Brachydanio rerio) 96-h LL50>74.03 mg Zr/L[4]

Daphnia Magna 48-h EC50>74.03mg/L [4]

Chronic toxicity (NOEC, LOEC)

 

Aquatic systems

 

 

 

Terrestrial systems

Fish (Brachydanio rerio) 96 hour NOELR > 74.03 mg Zr/L [4]

Daphnia Magna  48-h NOEC > 74.03mg/L [4]

Chlorella sp 15 days growth NOEC > 102.5 mgZr/L [4]

 

Early Seedling (tomato and pea Growth Toxicity Test (7 days)  

NOEC ≥ 703.4 mg Zr/kg dw (acidic soil) - 450 mg Zr/kg dw (calcareous soil) [4]

HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS and PROTECTION

Routes of human exposures

Inhalation risk 
A harmful concentration of airborne particles can be reached quickly when dispersed. [11]

General effects

Effects of short-term exposure 
May cause mechanical irritation to the eyes.

Effects of long-term or repeated exposure 
Repeated or prolonged inhalation of dust particles may cause effects on the lungs. [11]

Endocrine disruption

 

Mutagenicity

 

Carcinogenicity

A4 not classifiable as a human carcinogen [11]

Reprotoxicity

 

Teratogenicity

 

Skin, eye and respiratory irritations

Metabolism: absorption, distribution & excretion

May cause mechanical irritation to the eyes. [8, 11]

Exposure limits

TLV: 5 mg/m3, - ppm, as TWA; 10 mg/m3 as STEL;
MAK: (as Zr): 1 (inhalable) mg/m3; peak limitation category: I(1); sensitization of respiratory tract and skin (SAH); pregnancy risk group: D [11]
Hazard via Inhalation route (workers): DNEL (Derived No Effect Level) 5 mg/m³ [4]

Hazard via Dermal route (workers):   DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)  11 mg/kg bw/day [4]

Hazard via Inhalation route (general population):  
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level):  2.5 mg/m³  [4]

Hazard via Dermal route (general population):  DNEL (Derived No Effect Level) 5.5 mg/kg bw/day  [4]

Hazard via Oral route (general population):  DNEL (Derived No Effect Level) 5.5 mg/kg bw/day  [4]

Drinking water MAC

 

Other information

 

 

 

Animal toxicity data

 

Acute toxicity

(LD50)

rat female  (oral)  LD50>5000 mg/kg body weight [3]

rat male/female (inhalation) LC50 > 4.3 mg/L [3]

Chronic toxicity (NOEL, LOEL)

cat male/female (oral) NOAEL > 78 g/cat (9 weeks) [5]
dog, rabbit, rat ( inhalation) NOAEC. > 75 mg Zr/m3 (30 days, 6 hours/day 5 days/week) [4]

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

 

EINECS regulation

 EINECS #: 231-176-9  [11]

OSHA regulations etc.

 

OTHER INFORMATION, SPECIAL REMARKS

 

CREATED, LAST UPDATE

 

created

9th April 2018

updated

19th June 2018

REFERENCES

 

[1] NIH, US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Open Chemistry Database, Available from: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/115139#section=Top, Accessed: 9th April 2018

[2]  NIH, US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Open Chemistry Database  Available from: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/115139 ,  Accessed: 9th April 2018

[3] Human Metabolome Database, Zirconium (HMDB),  Available from: http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0001475,  Accessed: 9th April 201

[4] European Chemicals Agency - ECHA, Zirconium,  Available from:

https://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/13595/11,  Accessed: 9th April 201

[5] Koljonen T. (1992) Results of the mapping. In The Geochemical Atlas of Finland, part 2: Till (ed. T.Koljonen), pp. 106-217. Geological Survey of Finland.

[6] Ivanov VK, Tsyb AF. (1996) The Chernobyl accident and radiation risks: dynamics of epidemiological rates (morbidity, disability and death rates) according to the data in the antional registry. World Health Sta Q. 49 (1): 22-8 

[7] The Mineralogy of Zirconium, Available from: https://www.mindat.org/element/Zirconium,  Accessed: 9th April 201

[8] NIH, Toxicology Data Network, TOXNET,  Available from: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/f?./temp/~zZlIUP:3,  Accessed: 9th April 201

[9] O'Neil, M.J. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013., p. 1891

[10] Haynes, W.M. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 95th Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2014-2015, p. 4-100

[11] IPCS, CEC; International Chemical Safety Card on Zirconium. (October 2004). Available from: http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics1405.htm,  Accessed: 9th April 201

[12] Nielsen RH, Wilfing G; Zirconium and Zirconium compounds. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 7th ed. (1999-2015). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Online Posting Date: 15 Apr 2010