ZrO2

Zirconium dioxide

Source of the photo: 
http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.56183.html
Author of the description: 
Vaszita Emese
ZrO2

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE DATASHEET

 

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION

Chemical name                 

Zirconium dioxide

Synonyms                           

Zirconia

IUPAC name

Zirconium dioxide
Zirconium(IV) oxide

Dioxozirconium

CAS No

1314-23-4

REACH registration number

 

EC No

215-227-2

Molecular formula               

ZrO2

Substance group/chemical family

mono-constituent substance/inorganic

Appearance

Physical state

Odour

Form

Colour

 

solid (at 20°C and 1013 hPa) [3]

odourless (100%)  [3]

powder (100%)   [3]

white

USES AND HANDLING ISSUES

Relevant identified uses

metal surface treatment products, polishes and waxes, coating products, non-metal-surface treatment products and metal working fluids, medical implant material, valuable in sensors and fuel cells [6]

Handling considerations

Technical measures: Does not necessitate any specific/particular technical measures, other than those concerning the handling of powders.
Measures: Avoid the formation of spread of dust in the atmosphere.
Safe handling advice: Only use in well-ventilated areas. [3]:
Technical measures: Does not require any specific or particular technical measures.
Storage conditions: Stable under normal storage conditions
Incompatible products: Acids; H2O2
Packaging: Product must only be kept in the supplier's packaging.
Packaging materials: Plastic materials. [3]

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular weight                                   

123.218  g/mol [10]

Bulk density/Specific gravity

5.77 g/cm3  @ 20 °C[3]

pH

 not applicable

Particle size

D50 5.257 µm;  D90 10.87 µm; D10 1.307 µm [3]

EC

 

Melting point

2,715 °C  [1]

Boiling point

4,300 °C [2]

Flash point

 

Flammability

Non-flammable [2]

Vapour density

 

Vapour pressure

 

Solubility in water

55 µg/L @ 20 °C and pH 6.5 [3]

Solubility in organic solvents

 

Solubility in inorganic solvents

Slightly soluble in Hydrochloric acid, Nitric Acid. Slowly soluble in HF. Dissolves on heating with a mixture of 2 parts H2SO4 and 1 part water. [2]

Hydrolysis

 

Ionicity in water

 

Surface tension

 

Dispersion properties

 

Specific surface

 ≥25 m2/g

Stability and reactivity

Chemical stability

stable under normal conditions of use. [3]

Reactivity hazards

No dangerous reactions known under normal conditions of use. [3]

Corrosivity

 

Polimerization

 

Incompatibility with various substances

Acids; H2O2 [3]

Special remarks on reactivity

Keep away from moisture and heat [3]

Physical, chemical and biological coefficients

Koc

 

Kow

 

pKa

 

log Kp

3.1 (Zr concentration in sediment (mg/kg) / Zr concentration in filtered water (mg/L) = Kp.) [12]

Henry-constant

 

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND BEHAVIOUR

Artificial pollution sources

 

General terrestrial fate

 

General aquatic fate

 

General atmospheric fate

 

General persistence and degradability

 

Abiotic degradation and metabolites

 

Biodegradation and metabolites

 

Bioconcentration

Bioaccumulation (terrestrial and aquatic) [4]

Most zirconium compounds are ionic and, therefore, would not be expected to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. [11]

Volatilization

 

Photolysis

 

Hydrolysis

 

Soil adsorption and mobility

In general, metal cations in solution are attracted to the negatively charged surfaces of soil particles. The extent of adsorption of metal ions to soils depends on the pH, the mineral content, and organic content of the soil. [11]

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

Measured data

 

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

General adverse effects on ecosystem

Acute toxicity (LC50, EC50)

Aquatic systems

 

 

 

Terrestrial systems

LC50(4 days) 100 mg/L (Fish(Brachydanio rerio)[3, 4]

EC50 (2 days) 100 mg/L (Daphnia Magna) [4]

EC50 (3 days)0.042 - 100 mg/L aquatic algae and cyanobacteria [3]

 

Chronic toxicity (NOEC, LOEC)

 

Aquatic systems

 

 

 

 

 

Terrestrial systems

NOEC > 100 mg/L (2 days) (Daphnia Magna) [4]

NOEC > 200 ppm of ZrOCl2 (15 days) (Chlorella sp) growth   [4]

NOEC 200 mg/L (15 days) aquatic algae and cyanobacteria [3]

NOEC 0.004 – 32 mg/L (3 days) aquatic algae and cyanobacteria [3]

 

 

HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS and PROTECTION

Routes of human exposures

Occupational exposure to zirconium compounds may occur through inhalation and dermal contact at workplaces where zirconium or zirconium compounds are produced or used. Exposure to dust of zirconium and its compounds occur during milling operations and uses of zirconium [11]

General effects

 

Endocrine disruption

 

Mutagenicity

 

Carcinogenicity

rat (F344/female), subcutaneous implant, Dose: 4 cm sheet implanted into 1 site on the abdomen (study duration: 741 days), Implant site: malignant histiocytoma, results: positive [7]

 

rat (Wistar/Female (48/group), route: Intratracheal, dose: 6 mg of 1.8-4 um particles given as 10 instillations before wk 26, study duration 115 wk or no treatment,  tumour site: Lung: Bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma (2/47 experimental animals vs 0/46 control animals), cystic keratinizing epithelioma (2/47 vs 0/46), results: Positive, low incidence of benign tumors. [8]

 

Zirconium and compounds, as Zr, not classifiable as a human carcinogen.  (A4) [11]

Reprotoxicity

 

Teratogenicity

 

Skin, eye and respiratory irritations

 

Metabolism:

absorption, distribution & excretion

This substance causes serious eye irritation and causes skin irritation (CLP notifications provided to ECHA). [3]

Exposure limits

TLV (threshold limit value) (ACGIH): 5 mg/m3, as Zr; STEL(short-term exposure limit) (ACGIH): 10 mg/m3, as Zr; PEL (permissible exposure limit) (OSHA): 5 mg/m3, as Zr (compounds); MAK ( maximum workplace concentrations): 1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction (metal and insol. cmpds.); IDLH (  Immediately dangerous to life or health) (NIOSH): 25 mg/m3, as Zr [9]

Drinking water MAC 

 

Other information

 

 Animal toxicity data

Acute toxicity (LD50)

LC50 > 4.3 mg/L( rat male/female) (inhalation) [3]

LD50 5 000 mg/kg bw (rat) (oral exposure)[3]

Chronic toxicity (NOEL, LOEL)

NOAEL (cat)  > 78 g/ kg bw   (cat male/female (oral) (9 weeks) [5]

NOAEL (rat): 1 000 - 7 080 mg/kg bw/day [3]

 ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

EINECS regulation

listed on EINECS list [3]

OSHA regulations etc.

 OSHA IMIS Code Number (Zirconium Compounds (as Zr): 2620

OTHER INFORMATION, SPECIAL REMARKS

 

 

 

 

CREATED, LAST UPDATE

created

9th April 2018

updated

19th  June 2018

REFERENCES

[1] Lide, D.R (2001) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data,  CRC Press

[2] O'Neil, M.J. (2006) The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals (Fourteenth Edition), Merck Research Laboratories Division of Merck & Co., Inc.

[3] European Chemicals Agency, ECHA, Available from: https://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/15455/,  https://echa.europa.eu/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.013.844,  Accessed: 09th May 2018

[4] Ferrand, E., Dumat, C., Leclerc-Cessac, E., Benedetti, M.F (2006) Phytoavailability of zirconium in relation to its initial added form and soil characteristics.  Plant Soil 287, 313-325

[5] Harrison, J.W.E., Trabin, B., Martin, E.W. (1951) The acute, chronic and topical toxicity of zirconium carbonate. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 102, 179-184

[6] European Chemicals Agency, ECHA,  Available from: https://echa.europa.eu/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.013.844, Accessed:  Accessed: 09th May 2018

[7] Hatanaka, S, Oneda, S, Okazaki, K, Shong, L, Yoshida, A, Isaka , H, Yoshida , H (1993) Induction of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in female fisher rats by implantation of cyanoacrylate, zirconia, polyvinyl chloride or silicone; in vivo 7(2):111-115  , Available from: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgibin/sis/search2?@database=ccris&queryxxx=Zirconium+dioxide%2c+zirconia%2c+1314-23 4&Stemming=1&chemsyn=1&pubmed=1&and=1&od=./temp/~tOzNmq,  Accessed: 09th May 2018

[8] Mohr, U, Ernst, H, Roller, M, Pott, F (2006) Pulmonary tumor types induced in wistar rats of the so-called "19-dust study"; experimental and toxicologic pathology 58:13-20. https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2?@database=ccris&queryxxx=Zirconium+dioxide%2c+zirconia%2c+1314-23-4&Stemming=1&chemsyn=1&pubmed=1&and=1&od=./temp/~tOzNmq

[9] HAZ-MAP  Available from: https://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/categorydetails?table=copytblagents&id=8484,  Accessed: 09th May 2018

[10]  NIH, US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Open Chemistry Database,   Available from: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Zirconia,  Accessed: 09th May 2018

[11] NIH,   US National Library of Medicine, Toxicology Data Network, TOXNET, Available from: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/f?./temp/~JDOQtq:1,  Accessed: 09th May 2018

[12] Drndarski, N, Golobocanin, D (1995) Radionuclide partitioning coefficients in the Sava River ecosystem. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Letters 199, 21-26.  Available via: https://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/15455/5/5/2, Accessed: 09th May 2018