vanadium

Vanadium

Source of the photo: 
https://sciencenotes.org/vanadium-facts/
Author of the description: 
Vaszita Emese
vanadium

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE DATASHEET

 

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION

Chemical name                 

 Vanadium, elemental

Synonyms                           

 Ferro Vanadium, Ferro-Vanadium, Ferrovanadium,  Ferrovanadium alloy, High Speed Steel, Tool Steel, Vanadium (trade names) [3]

IUPAC name

 vanadium

CAS No

 7440-62-2

REACH registration number

fully registered

EC No

 231-171-1

Molecular formula              

 V

Substance group/chemical family

 mono-constituent /inorganic substance

Appearance

Physical state

Odour

Form

    Colour

 

 solid

 no data

 cubic

Light gray or white lustrous powder

Pure vanadium is bright, white, soft and ductile [1]

USES AND HANDLING ISSUES

Relevant identified uses

Vanadium is mostly combined with other metals to make special metal mixtures called alloys. Vanadium in the form of vanadium oxide is a component in special kinds of steel that is used for automobile parts, springs, and ball bearings. Vanadium is also mixed with iron to make important parts for aircraft engines. Small amounts of vanadium are used in making rubber, plastics, ceramics, and other chemicals. [2]

Vanadium is used in the following products: metals, welding & soldering products, metal surface treatment products, semiconductors, laboratory chemicals and coating products. 

Vanadium is used in the following areas: building & construction work, municipal supply (e.g. electricity, steam, gas, water) and sewage treatment and scientific research and development. Vanadium is used in the following activities or processes at workplace: transfer of chemicals, hot work operations with metals (e.g. welding, soldering, gouging, brazing, flame cutting), potentially closed industrial processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature (e.g. smelters, furnaces, refineries, coke ovens), open transfer and processing with minerals/metals at elevated temperature, handling of solid inorganic substances (e.g. ores and raw metal oxides, packaging/mixing/blending and weighing of metal powders), high energy work-up of substances bound in materials or articles (e.g. hot rolling/forming, grinding, mechanical cutting, drilling or sanding), the low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials or articles, mixing in open batch processes, transfer of substance into small containers, closed batch processing in synthesis or formulation, production of metal powders (hot processes), production of metal powders (wet processes) and production of mixtures or articles by tabletting, compression, extrusion or pelletisation. [3]

Handling considerations

 Handling:

Avoid formation of airborne dust and install exhaustion if not avoidable, or at hot forming workplaces. Keep away from sparks, heat, and open flame. Chunks may have razorsharp edges. [3]
Storage:

Material should be kept dry and in closed containers. Keep away from sparks, heat, and open flame in a well-ventilated area away from combustible materials.  [3]
Milling:

Precautions should be taken when crushing or milling this material to a fine-particle size (D50 < 150µm). Consideration should be given to performing these operations in an inert atmosphere or under vacuum. [3]

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular weight                                  

  50.9415

Bulk density/Specific gravity

6.3758 g/cm³ at 20 °C [3]

pH

 

Particle size

 Total Dustiness (airborne fraction): 112.37 mg/g (DMT) [3]

EC

 

Melting point

 1,910 °C  [1,3]

Boiling point

 3,407 °C at 101.325 kPa [1,3]

Flash point

 

Flammability

non flammable [3]

Vapour density

 

Vapour pressure

 

Solubility in water

137.9 - 155.9 µg/L @ 20 °C and pH 5.8 [3]

 

Solubility in organic solvents

 soluble in hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, and aquaregia [3]

 attacked by alkali, forming water  soluble vanadates [1]

Solubility in inorganic solvents

 

Hydrolysis

 

Ionicity in water

 

Surface tension

 

Dispersion properties

 

Specific surface

 Specific surface area (BET) of ferro vanadium powder: 0.045m²/g  [3]

Stability and reactivity

Chemical stability

 

Reactivity hazards

 

Corrosivity

 

Polimerization

 

Incompatibility with various substances

 

Special remarks on reactivity

 

Physical, chemical and biological coefficient

Koc

 

Kow

 

pKa

 

log Kp

 4.57 L/kg (solids-water in sediment) [3]

Henry-constant

 

ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND BEHAVIOUR

Artificial pollution sources

 

General terrestrial fate

 

General aquatic fate

 

General atmospheric fate

 

General persistence and degradability

 

Abiotic degradation and metabolites

 

Biodegradation and metabolites

 

Bioconcentration

 

Volatilization

 

Photolysis

 

Hydrolysis

 

Soil adsorption and mobility

 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

Measured data

Vanadium is the 22nd most abundant element in the earth’s crust with an average concentration of 100 ppm. It exists in oxidation states ranging from 2-to 5+ with 3+, 4+, and 5+ being the most common oxidation states. Vanadium is released to the environment by continental dust, marine aerosols, volcanic emissions, and the combustion of coal and petroleum crude oils. It is naturally released into water and soil as a result of weathering of rock and soil erosion. Ambient air concentrations of vanadium are low, with urban areas having higher concentrations. Vanadium residence time in the environment is inversely related to the particle size. In water, vanadium is converted from trivalent forms to pentavalent forms. The levels of vanadium in surface water range from 0.04 to 104 μg/L. Vanadium levels of 1.2–1.0 μg/L were measured in tap water samples collected in several U.S. states. Food is the primary route of exposure for the general population; foods with the highest vanadium content include ground parsley, freeze-dried spinach, wild mushrooms, and oysters. Vanadium in food is mainly ingested as VO2+ (vanadyl, V4+) or HVO42 (vanadate, V5+). Estimates of dietary vanadium intake range from 0.09 to 0.34 μg/kg/day in adults. [1]

 

 

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

General adverse effects on ecosystem

Acute toxicity (LC50, EC50)

Aquatic systems

LC50 (4 days) 693 - 27 800 µg/L (fish) [3]

LC50 (72 h) 732 - 27 800 µg/L (fish) [3]

LC50 (48 h) 1.398 - 30.7 mg/L (fish) [3]

LC50 (24 h) 9.005 - 44 mg/L (fish) [3]

LC50 (48 h) 1.52 - 13.3 mg/L (Daphnia magna) [3]

EC50 (72 h) 989.4 - 2 907 µg/L (aquatic algae and  cyanobacteria) [3]

EC50 (3 h) 100 mg/L  (microorganism) [3]

Terrestrial systems

 LC50 (28 days) 340 mg/kg soil dw (terrestrial macroorganisms except arthropods) [3]

Chronic toxicity (NOEC, LOEC)

Aquatic systems

 NOEC (3.2 months) 1.5 mg/L (fish) [3]

 NOEC (3.167 months) 1.5 mg/L (fish) [3]

 NOEC (70 days) 480 µg/L (fish) [3]

 NOEC (30 days) 41 µg/L (fish) [3]

 NOEC (28 days) 480 µg/L (fish) [3]

 NOEC (3.267 months) 560 - 1 000 µg/L (Daphnia magna) [3]

 NOEC (72 h) 16.8 µg/L (aquatic algae and cyanobacteria) [3]

 EC10 (72 h) 716 µg/L (aquatic algae and cyanobacteria) [3]     EC10 (3 h) 4.5 mg/L (microorganism) [3]

Terrestrial systems

EC10 (56 days) 22 mg/kg soil dw, (terrestrial macroorganisms except arthropods) [3]

 EC10 (28 days) 2 - 81 mg/kg soil dw, (terrestrial macroorganisms except arthropods) [3]

 EC10 (28 days) 54 mg/kg soil dw, (terrestrial macroorganisms except arthropods) [3]

EC10 (28 days) 3 - 492 mg/kg soil dw, (terrestrial arthropods) [3]

NOEC (28 days) 96 mg/kg soil dw, (terrestrial arthropods) [3]

NOEC (45 days) 97 - 110 mg/kg soil dw (terrestrial plants) [3]

NOEC (28 days) 28 mg/kg soil dw (terrestrial plants) [3]

EC10 (14 days) 11 - 180 mg/kg soil dw (terrestrial plants) [3]

EC10 (5 days) 24 - 370 mg/kg soil dw (terrestrial plants) [3]

NOEC (60 days) 80 mg/kg soil dw (soil microorganisms) [3]

NOEC (28 days) 3.2 - 122 mg/kg soil dw (soil microorganisms) [3]

NOEC (21 days) 122 mg/kg soil dw(soil microorganisms) [3]

NOEC (24 h) 3.2 - 1 650 mg/kg soil dw (soil microorganisms) [3]

EC10 (28 days) 35 - 960 mg/kg soil dw (soil microorganisms) [3]

NOEC (28 days) 5 mg/kg diet (birds) [3]

HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS and PROTECTION

Routes of human exposures

 

General effects

 

Endocrine disruption

 

Mutagenicity

not mutagenic [3]

Carcinogenicity

 some evidence of carcinogenic activity of V2O5 (rats) [3]

Reprotoxicity

not specified [3]

Teratogenicity

Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: skeletal anormalities (mouse) [3]

Skin, eye and respiratory irritations

non-irritating to skin, eyes [3], it has a very low potential for human inhalation hazard during handling or application. [3]

Metabolism:

absorption, distribution & excretion

Most of the absorbed vanadium from the GI tract was excreted rapidly in urine. (rats) [3]

Exposure limits

 

Drinking water MAC

 

Other information

not sensitising [3]

Animal toxicity data

Acute toxicity (LD50)

 LD50 (oral) (rats, females) >2000 mg/kg b.w. [3]

 LC50 (inhalation) (4 h) 5.05 mg/L air (rat) [3]

Chronic toxicity (NOEL, LOEL)

 NOAEL (rats): ≥1000 mg/kg bw/day (oral, 4 weeks) V as vanadium carbide nitride [3]
LOAEC (rats): 0.5 mg/m³ air (inhalation, 2 years) V as V2O5 [3]

NOAEL (mouse, oral) for maternal toxicity: 7.5. mg/kg. b.w./day., V as Na3VO4 [3]
NOAEL(mouse, oral) for foetotoxicity 15 mg/kg b.w./day, V as Na3VO4 [3]

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

REACH/CLP

According to the notifications provided by companies to ECHA in REACH registrations no hazards have been classified. [4]

According to the majority of notifications provided by companies to ECHA in CLP notifications no hazards have been classified. [4]

According to  REACH registrations:

No hazards have been classified. [4]

According to some CLP  notifications:

H413: May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life. [4]

EINECS regulation

EINECS (European INventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances) List [3]

OSHA regulations etc.

 

 

 

OTHER INFORMATION, SPECIAL REMARKS

Classification and proposed labelling with regard to toxicological data

 

 

 

CREATED, LAST UPDATE

Created

2018. 11. 05.

Last update

2018. 11. 06.

REFERENCES

[1] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2012) Toxicological Profile for Vanadium, https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp58.pdf,  Accessed 2018.11.05

[2] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=50, Accessed 2018.11.06

[3] European Chemicals Agency - ECHA, Vanadium. https://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/15421/1 Accessed 2018.11.06

[4] European Chemicals Agency - ECHA, Vanadium. https://echa.europa.eu/hu/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.028.337

https://echa.europa.eu/hu/information-on-chemicals/cl-inventory-database/-/discli/notification-details/10538/855875 Accessed 2020.05.11